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SY101 Final Exam Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Kimberly Ellis- Hale

SY101 Exam Review: Lectures Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective C. Wright Mills • Sociological imagination: a way of looking at the world that links apparently private problems and important social issues • Sociological perspective: a different way of looking at familiar worlds, one that stresses the social contexts (locations) in which people live and how these contexts influence their lives o Social location: employment, income, education, gender, age, and race o External influences: people’s experiences which are internalized and become part of a person’s thinking and motivations • Sociological imagination/perspective enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography Levels of Analysis • Macrosociology: focuses on broad features of society (e.g. social class and patriarchy) o Groups of people o Seeing what is happening from above (helicopter approach) • Microsociology: emphasizes social interaction (e.g. survival strategies of homeless) o Experiences/relationships within a wait room o Doctors and nurses interaction o Seeing what is happening at low level view (street view) Origins of Sociology th • Emerged middle of 19 century with use of scientific method to rest ideas • Factors: o Industrial Revolution  Sociology was born out of a revolution  Agriculture to factory/country to city  Birth of capitalism o Imperialism o Scientific method  Objective, systematic, empirical The Scientific Method • Key figures (all overlap and commented on the change that happened or what they were living through) o Auguste Comte (1798-1857)  Positivism o Karl Marx (1818-1883)  Class conflict o Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)  Social integration vs. suicide o Max weber (1864-1920)  Religion and capitalism Auguste Comte • Created a system that change would be managed by men who were disciples of sociology (his works) Karl Marx • Student in Germany (a highly conservative country) • Watched what was happening with the Revolution in France and Britain • Men’s relationships needed to change • Was kicked out of Germany for causing disturbance • Arrived in France – was further inspired and continued developing ideas • Kicked out and ended up in England • Refined economic theories • Wrote widely with clarity and understanding • Lived what he believed • Watched his children die from starvation • Contributed substantially across subjects (including economics, sociology, etc.) from a non-privileged position • Developed surplus value of labour Emile Durkheim • Notion was society works well when it has different components for a stable society • Latent and manifest intentions • Used social fact to explain social fact (e.g. suicide) • Statistics and demographics used to show that there were patterns in society that married persons were less likely to commit suicide • More suicide from particular religions • Age and men were also social facts that were used to explain the social fact of suicide • First sociology department Max Weber • Spent most of life arguing with Marx • Agreed that Marx had part of it right – there are forces but disagreed that economic system is not the only • Can we explain capitalism from religion • Certain societies developed capitalism more quickly than others o Most were protestant because they believed you were born saved (evidence of salvation was success; made money but reinvested it) • Other things can drive human history • More important to understand why someone did it than just look at social facts • Understanding is achieved when people are interacting The Role of Values in Research • Weber wanted sociology to be value-free and objective • What obstacles are there to doing completely objective research? Figure 1-1: The Debate Over Values in Sociological Research Verstehen and Social Facts • Weber and Verstehen o To understand people need to grasp by insight; pay attention to subjective meanings; the ways people interpret their own behavior • Durkheim and Social Facts o Social Facts: patterns of behaviour that characterize a social group Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 1. Symbolic Interactionism 2. Functional Analysis (Functionalism and Structural Functionalism) 3. Conflict Theory 4. Feminist Theories 5. Post Modernism 6. Queer Theory 7. Critical Race Theory 1. Symbolic Interactionism (Weber) • Microsociological level • Studies specific behaviours of individuals caught in identifiable face to face social settings or encounters • Emphasized symbols (things to which we attach meaning) as the basis of social life (symbols such as aunt, uncle, grandmother) • Varies based on culture, society, gender, social class 2. Functional Analysis (Durkheim) • Macrosociological theory which view society as a unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together • Functions, dysfunctions • Latent functions (taking turns, showing up on time) and manifest functions (reading, writing, math) • Poor have a role • Crime has a role 3. Conflict Theory (Marx) • Class struggles is the key to all human history o Bourgeoisie: own means of production o Proletariat: the mass of workers • Feminist Theories/Perspectives 4. Feminist Theories • Marxist: class and economic position explain gender inequalities • Liberal: legal restraints and customs (if one were to change law policies there would be equality) • Non-Marxist Radical: patriarchy oppresses women o Power, dominance, hierarchy and competition • Commonalities of Feminist Theories o Biological sex difference and differences in strength (not perfect) o Gender Division of labour is hierarchal o Relations between genders o Knowledge of science, ourselves and society largely derived from men’s experiences 5. Post Modernism • Modernity (Weber): describes a society which had emerged from feudalism and was characterized by change, collective action, reason and progress (sameness) • Post Modernism (C. Wright Mills): a rejection of modernity, a recognition of cultural diversity, an emphasis on symbols and discourse analysis o About locating the metanarratives (one way of seeing the world: beginning, middle, end) among all narratives o There are many voices with many understandings and they all deserve approach 6. Queer Theories • Judith Butler: Gender Trouble o Fluidity of gender identities • Gayle Rubin: Thinking Sex o Discusses general societal intolerance of sexual difference as a moral panic • Social dynamics constitute the substance of queer theory • Challenges all notions of fixed identity • Seeing the world from the perspective of a minority with no walls between men and women, races, etc. 7. Critical Race Theory • A multidisciplinary examination of: o The social construction of race and race identity o The reality of racial discrimination Applied and Clinical Sociology • Purel basic: research and theory aimed at making discoveries about life in human groups • Applied: blending of sociological knowledge and practical results • Clinical: deals with specific problems for particular organizations Chapter 2: What Do Sociologists Do? Valid Sociology Topic • Any kind of human behaviour and social interaction o Macrolevel analysis: military, race relations, multinational corporations o Microlevel analysis: how people interact on street corners, how people decorate their homes, family violence 6 Research Methods 1. Surveys o Select sample from target population o Random samples o Strategies for asking questions  Questionnaire and interviews: • Self-administered questionnaire • Structured interviews • Close ended questions  Establishing rapport 2. Participant Observation (Fieldwork) o Participating in research setting  Observation and recording o Highly descriptive analysis, but not always viewed as objective by more conventional researches o Rich description often provides significant theoretical insight 3. Qualitative Interviews o Structured conversation o Researcher’s personal characteristics very important  Some believe some research needs to be done by certain kinds of people (e.g. research on women abuse – the interview should be done by a woman researcher) o Distinctive feminist methodology: a conversation among equals 4. Secondary Analysis o Advantage to new researchers and graduates because they do not have to do all the setup work o Analyze data already collected by others o Data Liberation Initiative  Statistics Canada encourages others to analyze their data because they have so much of it  The university pays a small fee and Statistics Canada allows for free downloading of data  Advantages: available, cheap, fast o An excellent source of information but one can not be sure of how systematically the original data was gathered o The analyzer may not like how the information was fathered/included or did not like the questions asked but they have no power over that, they can only analyze/critique it 5. Documents o Examine films, books, newspapers, diaries, bank records, police reports, household accounts, immigration films, etc. o Usually best to utilize multiple sources or types of sources – one resource may not allow for great enough insight o Access to source material can pose a problem 6. Unobtrusive Methods o Observing the behavior of people who don’t know they’re being studied (not following/spying but instead looking at what’s left behind) o Look through trash (e.g. a group of people asked if they were good recyclers and the result was yes, but after sifting through their trash they found many things that should’ve been recycled) o Analyze graffiti – can be used to identify culture; not all bad o Examine grave yards – can provide data on mortality rates, area’s ethnic make-up and can be informative about culture (historically) o Playground example analyzing the most popular playground equipment Deciding Which Method to Use • Quantitative Research Methods o Measurement, numbers, stats o Structured questionnaire on surveys o Social facts explaining social facts (age, ethnicity, religion) • Qualitative Research Methods o Observation, description, and interpretation o Participant observation or qualitative interviews o No social facts o Understanding with participant to get an idea of social phenomenon Refer to Figure 2.1 Two Common Social Research Strategies or Paradigms Refer to Figure 2.2 The Research Model Ethics in Sociological Research • Research must meet professional ethical criteria • Openness (sharing research results), honest, and truth • No falsification of results or plagiarism • Protect identity of sources • Know where the funding comes from and if there are any strings attached Brajuha Research (1986) • Arson and an ethic double bind • Release of names The Scarce Research (1991) • Animal Liberation Front and confidentiality The Humphrey’s and the Tearoom Sex Study • Recognized public/law enforcement self highly simplistic stereotyped beliefs about men who commit impersonal sexual acts with one another in public restrooms • Research helped persuade police to stop using their resources on arrest for this victimless crime Discussion • Another infamous research project is the Stanford University Prison Experiment led by Philip Zimbardo in 1921 • Find out about the experiment. Why is it considered unethical? • Watch documentaries: “Quiet Rate” (2003) or “The Human Behaviour Experiments” (2006) • How Research and Theory Work Together • C. Wright Mills (1959) argued research without theory is of little value and is simply a collection of unrelated facts. Theory unconnected to research is abstract and empty. • Theory stimulates research • Research stimulates the development of theory • E.g. the amount of shark attacks and the amount of ice cream bought had a positive correlation – does eating ice cream affect shark attacks? No, it is the warm temperature that causes both to increase – shark attacks and eating ice cream are unrelated facts Chapter 3: Culture Cultural Differences • The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water • Remember there is nothing natural about culture o Culture within  Learned and shared ways of believing and of doing become core and are part of our taken for granted assumption concerning normal behaviour (e.g. Thanksgiving dinner) o Becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us o Only when it is challenged do we recognize it Symbolic Culture • Culture and taken for granted orientations to life o We assume our gestures, culture, beliefs, language, etc. is normal o Culture shock o Ethnocentrism • Cultural Relativism – don’t judge a society by any standards but its own Cultural Differences • Ethnocentrism o A tendency to judge other groups ways of doing things by one’s own; in a group loyalties vs. discrimination • Cultural Relativism o Trying to understand a culture in its own terms o But this notion of appreciating a different culture for its history and presence has come under criticism • Anthro Robert Edgerton Sick Societies (1992) o Judge by their people’s happiness, health, survival, elements of exploitation o Female genital mutilation (FGM), gang rape, wife beating, sell daughters to prostitution  FGM: female circumcision done for cultural, religion or other non-therapeutic reasons • Different types • Reasons: psychosexual, sociological, hygienic and aesthetic, myths, religious reasons  Male circumcision – North America has a declining trend but still about 40%  Can we judge? If so, how? Values, Norms, Sanctions • Values: what is desirable, by which they define good/bad, beautiful/ugly • Norms: grow out of/reflect values through social expectations or rules of behavior • Sanctions: positive or negative reactions to the ways in which people adhere to norms (e.g. picking nose/congratulations for a good mark) Folkways, Mores and Taboos • Folkways: norms that are not strictly enforced (e.g. standing on the right side of and escalator) • Mores: core to our values and demand conformity (e.g. laws) • Taboo: a norm that is so strongly engrained that violation is greeted with revulsion (e.g. pedophiles) Symbolic Culture • Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural capital o Culture shares many of the properties that characterize economic capital o Habits and dispositions o The way we respond, interact o Eye contact, shaking hand, interacting on a team • Subcultures and Counter cultures o Subculture: a world within a dominant culture  Values, norms, food, religion, language, or clothing may set them apart but subculture is largely compatible with the dominant society  E.g. doctors, skateboarders, police, military, athletes o Countercultures: values/norms that are incompatible with dominant culture  Organized crime, societies for men loving boys/girls  Not always negative but over conformity, fundamentalist Christian groups seeking to politically impress their view of the world on all of us Values in Canadian Society • Canada’s geography as share identity o Lipset: revolutionary vs. counter-revolutionary  Guns in Canada vs. US  Politeness in Canada • Canada as a Pluralism/Pluralistic society o Comprised of multiple cultural, religious, racial, ethnic, special interest groups o Changes in national culture – more liberal attitudes  How diverse are we actually? o Text spends a fair bit in differences between Quebec and the rest of Canada (regarding cultural differences) • Native peoples in Canada o Marginalization enshrined in India Act of 1879 thus very little reason to celebrate • Value contradictions and social change o Dominant group superiority violates freedom, democracy, and equality o Quebec’s Quebec Charter of Values  The PQ governments plan would be to ban public sector employees – including teachers and doctors – from displaying or wearing religious symbols in the workplace o Americanization of Canadian values  John Porter (1965) said over 3 decades ago, Canadians, unlike Americans, lack a unifying ideology  Do you think this is true now?  What is distinctive about Canada?  Cultural Universals • Are there any cultural values (or other traits) that are found everywhere? o Yes, there are universal human activities (storytelling, marriage, disposing of the dead) o No, there are no universal ways of doing these activities o So, these activities happen universally but are done differently Technology in the Global Village • New technology • Technology establishes the framework for non-material culture o Technological determinism o Harold Innis and Marshal McLuhan (1911-1980) Canadian educator and philosopher • Vital to a groups culture is its material expression o Central is technology with the type of technology setting the framework for a group’s non-material state • Ability for global communication is virtually instantaneous 24/7 • Such revolution • IM and work Cultural Lag and Cultural Change • Non-material culture and material culture • William Ogburn o A group’s material culture usually changes first, with the nonmaterial culture lagging behind Socialization • Society and social experience makes us human • Variable influence of family, friends, culture, religion • Makes us who we are • Without relationships we are nothing Nature or Nurture • Nature: people’s fates, likes/dislikes, and behaviour dictated by inborn characteristics – genetic material • Nurture: people’s fates, likes/dislikes, and behaviour the product of impact of culture, historical period, family and friendship groups o Social sciences take position that it is our social relationships but recognize biology does establish general parameters for human development (e.g. language/social connection) • Socialization: the process by which we learn the ways of society (or particular groups); influences not only how we express our emotions, but what emotions we feel o Smoking cigarettes provides a useful example of the power and complexity of socialization (the shift from smoking inside) o The shift from drinking while pregnant Social Development of the Self, Mind and Emotions • Cooley (1864-1929) and the Looking-Glass Self (1902) o SI (symbolic interaction) theorist concluded that the self or humanness is socially created in an ongoing life long process  We imagine how we appear to those around us  We interpret other’s reactions  We develop a self-concept o Lego people • George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) and Role Taking o Philosophy prof, U of Chicago 1894-31, considered SI founder o Social Psychology and grad students in Sociology did not write down his thoughts on SI; rather students, so impressed wrote down and turned their notes into what would become a cornerstone work, Mead’s Mind, Self, and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviourist o Added play is critical to development of self as fosters taking role of the other, which is gradually attained (first significant others and then generalized other as children learn to internalize the expectations of others)  Baseball diamond – play is essential for who we are, enables children to develop roles and different perspectives, understand plays and positions, taking the role of another o Essential to become cooperative members of human groups o The I (active, creative part of self; most sociological in nature) and the Me (attitudes internalized from interactions with others) • Marlene Mackie: uses Mead to explain how we learn our gender roles o Stage 1: imitations/preparatory stage (under 3), mimic  Understand symbols and that they are gendered (worlds, names, representations and based on these individuals treated differently) • You are treated differently based on the symbol of gender • Children know that there is a difference between boy and girl, but they do not know what the difference is o Stage 2: play (3-5/6), pretend to take the role of another  Girls play mother while boys play hockey player  Imperfect understanding of gender roles: hair/eyelash length  Society directly/indirectly conveys message boys/girls are different and that is critically important to know which you are o Stage 3: Game (7-puberty), develop ability to take on multiple roles, work in groups  Baseball analogy from Mead  Children learn that gender roles are very complex and that something like girlness hinges on something like boyness  Women work in homes – don’t understand unless there is a playoff of men working outside of the home  Can understand from another perspective • Freud (1856-1939) and the Development of Personality o Treating of emotional problems through long term, intensive exploration of subconscious has vastly influenced Western world  ID: immediate self-gratification in areas of attention, safety, food, sex, aggression and so on (born with/nature)  Ego: balancing force between ID and social demands that suppress it as well as between the ID and the superego  Superego: conscience or culture within us; the moral component (guilt, shame, pride for self-satisfaction) o Problems: disagree with innate motivations as the primary forces behind human interaction (social factors/modify/help define things such as attention, safety, food, etc.); saw male as normal, female as inferior, castrated males • Erving Goffman o Developed dramaturgical analysis o Through socialization we learn ‘scripts’ (how to greet someone, notion of how to interact with people, how to respond to a policeman after getting pulled over) o Also learn to navigate a backstage (how you prepare) and a front stage (what people see) o Analysis of total institutions (everything is provided: asylum/nursing home) was important to exploring the limits on social control and resociolization  No reason to leave  Under surveillance  There is a redefinition of socialization o Asylums (1961): collection of 4 essays based on his participant observation (physical therapist’s assistant)  Importance of context (the participants in asylum taking notes, making conversation – normal behaviour outside the asylum is viewed pathologically) Teachers Response to Students • Boys: taught to be playful, run around, get their energy out – s now they are problematic at school and told to sit still • Girls: taught to be ladylike and proper • How do popular programs on TV portray gender roles? Gender Socialization • Key way in which Canadian society channels behaviours is through gender socialization o A man who does well at work is a closer, a woman is a bitch • Sanctioning different attitudes and behaviours from us because we are male or female, we often aren’t even aware of it o Stop crying like a baby, big boys don’t cry o Look at how pretty you are, you look like a princess • By expecting different attitudes and behaviours from different genders, the social group nudges boys and girls in separate directions in life • A socially constructed system of classification that ascribes qualities of masculinity and femininity to people o Gender roles can change over time and are different between cultures • One’s sense of self as masculine or feminine regardless of external genitalia o Gender is often confused with sex – inaccurate because sex refers to bodies and gender refers to social accepted/demanded role expression linked to sex • We have such a strong emphasis on whether you are a boy or a girl Guest Speaker: Social Inequality Poverty • The UN Declaration of Human Rights – Canada signed in 1948 • Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age, or other lack of livelihood and circumstances beyond his control • 1 billion people live on less than $1 per day • 225 of the world’s richest people have a combined wealth of more than the income of the worlds 2.5 poorest people • Common Sense Revolution o Cut Social Assistance by 21.6% (1995) • Minimum wage is $10.25 o Hasn’t been increased in 4 years (increase coming June 1 , 2014: $11) o Inflation 8$ • Living wage is $13.62 o You don’t spend more than 30% of income on housing • Ontario work rates are still not back to the level they were prior to the common sense revolution of Mike Harris’ government • Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed – Dwight D. Eisenhower Hunger • Worldwide hunger either causes or contributes to more deaths than AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined • If America, Japan and Germany would only double their aid to the poorest countries, hunger would be absolutely abolished by 2025 • Hunger is the single greatest solvable problem in the world • With almost half of the country knowing someone who has used a food bank it’s clear that there is hunger in every community • Hunger-count 2013 and year end 2012 – Food Bank of Waterloo Region • Part-time – unpredictable hours which doesn’t give them the opportunity to find another part time job to work full hours Homelessness • People who are homeless want to be that way and are to blame for their own situation o False – less than 6% of homeless are there by choice. Most people are victims and have suffered from abuse or violence. Many have lost their jobs after years of employment and had to give up their homes • All people who are homeless live on the streets o False – people who are visibly homeless are just part of the total homeless population. Researchers estimate that ¾ don’t sleep on the street but use shelters, sleep in cars, or on someone’s couch • 75% of the homeless do not suffer from mental illness, but depression is considered a mental illness and makes up the large majority of that 25% • It takes 3 things to end homelessness: o An adequate income o Affordable housing o Support services for those who need them • Out of the Cold Program o In 15 years they have served 26,000 and slept 14,000 Why do People Become Homeless? • Increase in the number of poor people • Decrease in the number of low income housing units • De-institutionalization of Canada’s mentally ill population • Decline in public assistance • Divorce • Domestic violence • Drug and alcohol related problems • Physical illness/disability • Job loss • Lack of affordable housing • Lack of child support • Low wages • Mental illness • Natural disaster/fire • Post traumatic stress disorder • Roommates • Severe depression • Tragedy Out of Our Comfort Zone • The most pervasive cause of homelessness is poverty • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principle of fundamental justice – Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Section 7 • Housing is a right, not a privilege • Every year, homelessness costs taxpayers between $4.5-$6 billion minimum. This includes health care, criminal justice, social service and emergency o Therefore costs $82-$100 per homeless person • The average life expectance of a homeless person in Canada is 39 years The Black Hole of Homelessness • One time situation (70% o Result of an unexpected event o Most have social and economic resources to draw on • Episodic: cycling in and out of homelessness (30%0 • Chronic: street/couch surfers (10%) o Usually more than 1 year o Homelessness has become the new normal o Extensive use of emergency systems Chapter 4: Socialization Gender Socialization • Key way in which Canadian society channels behaviours is through gender socialization • By expecting different attitudes and behaviours of different genders, the social group nudges boys and girls in separate directions in life o Not based on genetics or science o What our society deems acceptable o Women ski jumping added to Olympics for the first time – didn’t have it before because of a notion that women couldn’t do it and that it was dangerous for women – has no basis in modern science Family • Often unconsciously indoctrinating us into this symbolically divided world • Family is the number one socialization agent o Teachers nurture differences further • Agency of socialization that stays with us for a long time • Gender roles: behaviors and attitudes considered appropriate for our sex Mass Media • Create and reinforce cultural expectations of gender • Advertising o 3000 advertisements each day in NA in which the portrayal of men is rugged/dominant and women is sexy/submissive o Type of product sold is gendered o Impact of gendered advertisings influences children’s determination of girl and boy toys TV • 48% of grade 3-10 have own TV with 50% saying no household rules regarding TV shows; programming reinforcing traditional gender stereotypes this is a serious cause for concern • Prime time males out number females 2:1 • Males in higher status positions – in interviews more men are more likely to be addressed with their title • Increased viewing there is an increase in restrictive ideas about women’s roles • Adults focus on women’s appearance and resultant unhealthy trends in cosmetic surgery and dieting Agents of Socialization • Groups that influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes and behaviours • Family o Our experiences have life long impact o It is here that we begin to see ourselves as strong/weak, smart/dumb o Motivations, values and beliefs • Religion o For many it is a major influences, especially in the development of morality but actual formal participation is down o It is becoming less influential as it once was o Over 1/3 children (12 and under) attend at least once a month o More likely if mother is working outside the home and married  The married part is key (as opposed to common law) as often people who are married and go through that process have more traditional values and beliefs o Canada is more secular as attendance once a month drops from 41% in 1988 to 34% in 1990, dropped even further now o Many argue that religion continues to marginalize women • Daycare o Over half of Canadian children were in some form of child care and 25% of them were in daycare o Only about 10% are in licensed day care centers o The media says that more children should be in licensed day care; however, the majority of people who need it cannot afford it o There are subsidies but there is a 3 year wait list – people put their names on the list before they are even pregnant • Schools o Manifest vs. latent functions  Manifest: courses you are taking, degree you are getting  Latent: power, prestige, school loyalty o Learns universality – that the same rules apply to everyone o Hidden curriculum • Peer groups o Individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests o Next step away from family o Conform or be rejected o Alder, Kless, Adler (1992)  Peer groups provide enclaves for boys and girls  Elementary schools in Colorado; groups separate by sex  Girls popular if from good family, physical appearance (clothing/makeup), and ability to attract popular boys • Sports o Who has opportunities and who doesn’t? o Make friend connections o Benefits of physical activity but also social affects o Play is important  Allows us to take perspective of other  Teaches us of who is the best, “king of the castle”, who isn’t o Sport participation has declined o Trends  Boys involved more than girls  Ages 11-18 more than 5-10  Highest level of income, highest participation in sports • Workplace o Anticipatory socialization  Learning to play the role before entering it  With more participation begin to integrate into self-concept Chapter 5: Globalization Globalization • The spread and intensification of capitalism across the globe o Close cutting (especially labour) which usually means downsizing/closing facilities in most industrialized countries and relocating for cheaper labour, taxes, and environmental protection  Textile/garment industries among first to be globalized • Involves interaction/integration of increase numbers of people through international trade and investment, travel and tourism, and information technology and the mass media • Extensive movement of capital, technology, people and ideas between nations was ushered in by the expansions of capitalism Patterns of Movement • Women’s work o Many new immigrants work as domestics or textile workers (soft sectors) because of decreased transferable skills  Unstable, decrease pay, increase workloads, increase stress o Asian countries work in “export processing zones” in hazardous conditions o Still tend to do the majority of housework even when working outside the home o Education helps achieve work equity in terms of people who come to another country Globalization: The Issues • Globalization, more importantly, is the movement of goods, services and capital • Often leads to disappearance of local enterprises, restaurants, entertainment venues in favor of branch plants of foreign based transnational corporations (start with very low prices, the local companies are driven out, the prices raise due to no competition) • Advocates o Poor countries benefit from increase employment opportunities and increase standard of living • Detractors o Most benefits go to transnational corporations o Increased inequalities of wealth, power and privilege at the expense of the less developed and poorer regions of the world • Dependency theory: stressed how the least industrialized nations became dependent on the more industrialized nations o Poverty has increased and quality of life for billions has deteriorated • Culture of poverty (Galbraith) o Faults the characteristics of poor nations rather than international arrangements that benefit the most industrialized nations at their expense o Most sociologists prefer imperialism, world system theory, and dependency theory to culture of poverty o Based on the idea that if a country is poor, it is because of the people who live there (they don’t work hard enough, etc.)  Least accepted idea of why poverty happened Children as Prey • In Brazilian slums 2,000 children murdered by police yearly • Worldwide tens of millions of children are on the streets • In China an estimated 10 million school-aged children work in manufacturing plants or other activities (primarily female) o Education of women is not important • Many children drop out of school because tuition is too high World Division: Theories of Global and Economic Development Imperialism and Colonization • First to industrialize got a jump start • Imperialism: take over other countries in order to expand markets and gain access to cheap raw materials • Colonization: more powe
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