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SY101 Midterm1Notes.doc

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John Stephens

SY101BMIDTERMUNOMonday September 30 201340MultipleChoiceTrueFalseQuestionsTextbookCHAPTER 1 A Sociological Compassdef Sociologyis the systematic study of human behavior in social contextSuicide appears to be the supreme antisocial and non social act Nearly everyone in society condemns itCommitted in privateComparatively rareInterested in the aspects of specific individuals lives that caused them to become depressed or angry enough to commit suicide Do not think about the patterns of social relations that might encourage or inhibit such actions in generalPsychological disorder causes suicide is supportedOnly when suicide rate is high the rate of psychological disorder is high Low where the rate of psychological disorder is low Social solidarity according to Durkheim more a groups members share beliefs and values the more frequently and intensely they interact the more social solidarity exists within the group More social solidarity in a groupmore firmly anchored its individuals are to the social world and the less likely they are to take their own lives Suicide varies within the degree of integration of the social groups of which the individual forms a part Durkheims theory of suicideAltruistic suicide occurs when norms tightly govern behaviorDeep sense of patriotism and comradeshipEgoistic suicide results from the poor integration of people into society because of weak social ties to othersSomeone who is unemployed and unmarried is more likely to commit suicide than someone who is employed and marriedAnomic suicide occurs when vague norms govern behaviorHigh among people living in a society that lacks a widely shared code of morality def Social structuresrelatively stable patterns of social relationsMills as a sociologist main task is to identify and explain the connection between peoples personal troubles and the social structures in which people are embedded Microstructures the patterns of intimate social relations formed during face to face interaction like familes friendship and work associationsMacrostructures patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintancesPatriarchy traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men in most societiesGlobal structuresPersonal problems are connected to social structures at all levelsThe scientific revolutionUsing evidence to make a case for a particular point of viewthe democratic revolutionpeople control societythe industrial revolutionpeople moved from countryside to cityEmile DurkheimfunctionalismTheory stress that human behavior is governed by stable patterns of social relations or social structuresFunctionalists show how social structures maintain or undermine social stabilityEmphasize that social structures are based mainly on shared valuesReestablishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems Conflict theoryFocuses on large macro level structuresStruggle between high and low social standingMajor patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some and social change in othersPrivileged groups try to maintain their advantages while other struggle to acquire themSuggests that lessening privilege will lower the level of conflict and increase human welfare Karl Marx def Class consciousnessbeing aware of belonging to the same exploited class def Class conflictthe struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes Feminist theory Operates in both micro and macro settingsExisting pattern of gender inequality can and should be changed for benefit of societySymbolic interactionismMicro level social settingsBoth functionalist and conflict theories togetherEmphasizes that social life is possible only because people attach meanings to thingsdef variable a concept that can take on more than one valuedef randomization in an experiment assigning individuals to groups by chance processesdef dependent variable the presumed effect in a cause andeffect relationshipdef experimental group the group that is exposed to the independent variable in an experimentdef control group the group that is not exposed to the independent variable in an experiment
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