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Midterm

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Department
Sociology
Course
SY203
Professor
Michael Manley
Semester
Summer

Description
QUESTION3OutlineanddiscusswebersapproachtocapitalismHowdoesitdifferfromMarxsviewWeberhadtwocentralconcernsinwritingtheprotestantethic1HewantedtoshowhowbeliefsinfluenceactionsHealsowantedtoestablishaconnectionbetweenpatternsofbeliefandasystemofsocialaction2hewantedtoshowthattherewasaconnectionbetweenreligionandcommerceandthatcapitalismwaslargelyshapedbyreligiousinfluencesThesewerebothcontroversialaspeoplehadneverbeforeconnectedreligiontoeconomicsandeconomicsatthetimewereseentoberationalandnotbasedonbeliefsWebermadetwoobservationsregardingtheseconcerns1AllcommercialcentresthroughoutEuropehaddemonstratedintensecommercialactivityatthesametimethatProtestantismbegantotakeholdinEurope2webernotedcapitalismismoticatedbytwokindsofactivitiesThefirstisdevotiontoattainingwealththatexceedspersonalneedsThesecondistheavoidanceoftheuseofincomeforpersonalpleasureWeberbelievedthatcapitalismisdrivenbyasceticismwhichhedefinesasthedisciplinetoselfdenyasmeanstoattainfuturerewardorendsWeberdevelopedwhathecalledthespiritofcapitalismwhichisdefinedby3centraltendencies1devotiontoattainwealthbeyondindividualneeds2unrelievedtoilandworkand3theavoidanceoftheuseofwealthforpersonalenjoymentWhendiscussingthespiritofcapitalismWeberoftenusedBenjaminFranklinswordstorepresentitInthisWebershowedthatthespiritisuniquebecauseitisonlyinmoderncapitalismandislackinginothersocietieswherecapitalismexistsAlsohedrewthedistinctionbetweenfunctionalandethicaldemandsinthespiritofcapitalismThisindicatedthattheuseofethicsusesreligiousdoctrinesAccordingtoWebertherearetwoformsofcapitalismModernandtraditionalInmoderncapitalismemployerspricejobsaccordingtodifferentratesinordertoobtainthemostfromtheworkeraspossibleIftheemployerraisestheratestheworkerswouldwanttoworkharderIntraditionalcapitalismraisingtherateswoulddecreaseproductivityThereforetheopportunitytoearnmorewaslessattractivethanthatofworkingharderTheworkerwasmoreinterestedinknowinghowmuchworktheymustdotogetthewagestheydidbeforetomeettheirtraditionalneedsWeberalsodiscussessomethingcalledthecallingThecallingistracedbacktocatholicdoctrineandbeingcalledtothelifetaskofservinggodWeberbelievedtherewasaconnectionbetweenworldactivityasceticismandreligiousjustificationofactionWebersviewdifferedstronglyfromMarxMarxviewedcapitalismasaneconomichistoricalpoliticalandsocialanalysisMarxbelievedthatmoneyandcommoditiesalonedidnotmakecapitalismRathermoneyandcommoditieshavetomakeasystemifsocialrelationsbasedonthedivisionofsocialclassesMarxbelievedthatcapitalismisnotasystemoffixedeternallawsbutratherisahistoricalphenomenonMarxdidnotseecapitalismfromascientificviewbutratherasasystemofsocialinequalityasoneclassdominatedanotherMarxscentralgoalwastogetatthesocialdeterminantsofcapitalismunderstanditsoriginsandlookatitssocialandhumanconsequences
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