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Research Methods Exam Review.doc

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Linda Quirke

Research Methods Exam Review · Structured observation- researcher employs explicitly formulated rules for the observation, categorization and recording of the behaviour · Behaviour is observed directly (not inferred) · Indexes- accumulating scores assigned to individual attributes · Scales- level/ degree of strength · Population- all cases about one seeks knowledge · Sample- elements selected for investigation · Probability sampling- better because they allow for inferences from sample to population (generalizability) 1. Simple random sampling (each unit of population has equal probability of inclusion in the sample -1 out of 20 uni students) 2. Systematic sample (no periodicity) 3. Stratified random sample (all faculties are represented) 4. Multi stage cluster sampling ( primary sampling unit is not the individuals or units of population but an aggregate of them, or cluster- (group unis by region and sample two regions, then 5 universities from two regions, then 500 students from each uni) · Sample size- absolute sample size is what’s important, not the proportion of the population that it comprises · Sampling Bias- sources of bias ( not using a random method to pick the sample, the sampling frame or list of potential subjects is inadequate, some peple in the sample refuse to participate or cannot be contacted- non response) · Sampling error- differences between data from random sample and the population from which its selected · Non response- number of unusable questionnaires total sample, divided by total sample, minus unsuitable or contactable members of the sample, x 100 · Reducing non response- keep calling back, be optimistic, reassume ppl you are not a sales person, dress in a way that is acceptable to a lot of ppl, be flexible in accomadating participants schedule · Heterogeneity- group is
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