WS100OC Midterm Review.docx

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Women & Gender Studies
Course
WS100
WS100OC Midterm Review
Be Able to Define the Following Term:
1. Gender
- The assignment of masculine and feminine characteristics to
bodies in cultural contexts
- Gender refers to how we are socialised into particular male or
female roles in society. The process of socialization acts to define
particular responses or behaviours as being appropriate for each
sex; for example, that boys and men are more aggressive
therefore more able to shovel the snow, cut the grass, set the
garbage out for pick up, barbecue and drywall. This is a way in
which biology translates into a “natural” skill. The same is true of
girls and women who are seen as biologically more nurturing
(because they might have a uterus) and therefore better equipped
than men to raise children. Gender includes the traits we learn
daily that identify us as men or women. We tend to be unaware of
the countless ways we observe others in their performance of
gender and how we incorporate those behaviours into our
personal scripts.
2. Patriarchy
- Defined at a system where male dominate because power and
authority are in the hands of adult men
- Being supporter of women’s right does not necessarily translate
into men understanding how everyday privileges associated with
masculinity maintain entitlements in a patriarchal society
- It is one thing to feel indignant about inequality or compassion for
marginalized people and another to recognize that your privilege
is connected to the oppression of others
3. A Vindication of
the Rights of
Women (1792)
- English philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft book
- Seen as the first important expression of the demand for women
equality, although the beginning of the women’s movement in the
United States is usually dated to the Seneca Falls Convention of
1848
4. Lesbian feminism
- Focuses on how compulsory heterosexuality (the cultural norm
that assumes and requires heterosexuality) and heterosexual
privileges (the right to legal marriage and being intimate in public)
function to maintain power in society
5. Lesbian baiting
- Many people have attempted to discredit feminism in other ways
- Feminists are accused of being lesbians in effort to discredit
feminism and prevent women both from joining the movement
- Considerable fear associated with being a lesbian are to keep
women apart and hate men
6. Third-wave
Feminism
- Feminist activity influenced by postmodernism and multiracial
feminism which problematizes the universality and potential
inclusivity of the term woman
- Its origins in the 1990s and reflects the thinking, writing and
activism of women and men who tended to come of age taking for
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granted the gains of second wave feminism, as well as the
resistance or backlash to it
- Shaped by material conditions created by globalization and techno
culture and focus on issues of sexuality and identity
- Through musical and art forms various “rages or “zines”
- C.V. Harquail writes about social networking “Facebook for
Women vs. Facebook Designed by Feminists”
- Foster opportunities for communication and networking in an
increasingly globalized world
7. Transnational
Feminism
- Recognizes opportunities associated with the development if
international alliances and recognizes opportunities associated
with the development of international alliances and networks for
the emancipation of women worldwide
- Educates about the problems of claiming a “universal sisterhood”
that ignores differences of women
- CEDAW (Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women) UN in 1979- 186 countries
8. Compulsory
heterosexuality
- The notion that everyone should be heterosexual and have
relationships with the opposite sex- ableism
9. Ableism
- Susan Wendell, “The Social Construction of Disability”: makes the
case that “ableism” discrimination against the mentally and
physical disabled, is a direct result of social factors that actively
create standards of normality against which ability/disability is
constructed
- Discrimination in favour of able-bodied people, prejudice against
or disregard of the needs of disabled people
- Physical and mental ability
10. Privilege
- The hierarchical ranking of difference is constructed through social
processes such that patterns of difference become systems of
privilege and inequality
- Defined as advantages people have by virtue of their status or
position in society- earning a degree or responsibility
- Invisible package of unearned assets: “white privilege and male
privilege”- Peggy McIntosh
11. Horizontal hostility
- Aspect of internalizing oppression
- When individual direct the resentment and anger they have about
their situation onto those who are of equal or lesser status
- “divide and conquer- group are encouraged to fight one another
to avoid alliance that might collaboratively overpower an enemy
- Women might do this when they are in competition about each
other’s looks or put women down with verbal and/ or nonverbal
behaviour
12. Gender swapping
- Internet and other virtual technologies have facilitated
transgendered identities through a disruption of the expected
relationship between self and body
- Technologies remove physical, bodily cues- creation that attempt
the binaries of “femininity” and “masculinity”
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- Supports the postmodern view of gender as performativity and
identity as multiple and fluid
13. Homophobia
- The societal fear or hatred of lesbians and gay men, functions to
maintain this as an insult
14. Internalized
oppression
- Means we not only police ourselves but also police one another,
encouraging compliance with institutions that may oppress-
related to horizontal hostility
15. Lifestyle feminism
16. Gender
socialization
- We are taught and learn the appropriate thinking and behaviours
associated with being a boy or girl in any given society
17. Transgender
- Who claim a gender identity or expression different from the one
assigned at their birth by their family and community
- Involves resisting the social construction of gender into two
distinct binary categories, masculinity and femininity and working
to break down these polarized categories
- Refusing to identify in any distinct category
- About gender performance and might involve any sexual identity
18. Gender queer
- A person who are nonconformist in challenging existing
constructions and identities
- Focuses on the integration of gender and sexual identities
19. Tombois
-
20. Androgyny
- One performance of transgendered identity
- Lack of gender differentiation or a balanced mixture of
recognizable feminine and masculine traits
- The trapping of femininity seem to be the first things that are shed
when a body tries to redo itself
21. Transvestism
- Is the practice of cross-dressing, which is wearing clothing
traditionally associated with the opposite sex or gender
22. Masculinity
23. Femininity
24. Gender ranking
- The valuing of one genders over another
- gender are ranked, the devalued genders have less power,
prestige and economic rewards than the valued gender
25. Hermaphrodites
- A person having male and female sex organs or other sexual
characteristics, wither abnormally or naturally
26. Intersexual
- Variation in sex characteristic including chromosomes, gonads and
genitals that do not allow an individual to be distinctive identified
as female and male sex binary
- Genetic testing
27. Female masculinity
28. Sexual scripts
- Guidelines for how we are supposed to feel and act as a sexual
persons
- Shaped by the communities and societies in which we participate
and socially constructed
29. Sexual identity
- One aspect of sexual self-schemas that can be defined as person’s
attraction to, or preference for, people of a certain gender
- Romantic or sexual identity and behaviour
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Document Summary

Be able to define the following term: gender. The assignment of masculine and feminine characteristics to bodies in cultural contexts. Gender refers to how we are socialised into particular male or female roles in society. This is a way in which biology translates into a natural skill. The same is true of girls and women who are seen as biologically more nurturing (because they might have a uterus) and therefore better equipped than men to raise children. Gender includes the traits we learn daily that identify us as men or women. We tend to be unaware of the countless ways we observe others in their performance of gender and how we incorporate those behaviours into our personal scripts: patriarchy. Defined at a system where male dominate because power and authority are in the hands of adult men: a vindication of the rights of. Women (1792: lesbian feminism, lesbian baiting, third-wave.

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