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WS100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Lucretia Mott, Lesbian Feminism, Compulsory Heterosexuality

Women & Gender Studies
Course Code
Lorraine Vander Hoef
Study Guide

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WS100OC Midterm Review
In preparation for the midterm exam, be sure to have read online Lessons/Modules 1-6 under
your course Content files, as well as Ch. 1-4 and 6, and the articles assigned from your Course
Reader for weeks 1-6 on your Weekly Schedule.
The midterm exam will consist of 40 multiple choice questions derived from the following
review questions.
1. Be able to define the following terms:
a. Gender
o The way out society organizes understandings of sexual difference.
o Gender refers to how we are socialised into particular male or female roles
in society. The process of socialization acts to define particular responses
or behaviours as being appropriate for each sex; for example, that boys
and men are more aggressive. This is a way in which biology translates
into a “naturalskill. The same is true of girls and women who are seen as
biologically more nurturing and therefore better equipped than men to
raise children. Gender includes the traits we learn daily that identify us as
men or women. Sex, on the other hand, refers to the apparent biological
differences that define us as embodying a male or female identity. Sex
assignment is now contested ground, as we realize that many of us
embody biological variances that may make our inclusion into any of
these rigid sex defining categories more ambiguous.
b. Patriarchy
o A system where males dominate because power and authority are in the
hands of adult men.
c. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
o The first important expression of the demand for women’s equality
o Response to the experience of Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
who were refused seating, made to sit behind a curtain, not allowed to
voice their opinions because they were women.
d. Lesbian feminism
o Radical feminist offshoots include lesbian feminism, which focuses on
how compulsory heterosexuality (the cultural norm that assumes and
requires heterosexuality) and heterosexual privilege ( the rights and
privileges of heterosexuality, such as legal marriage and being intimate in
public) function to maintain power in society.
e. Lesbian baiting
o Feminists are accused of being lesbians in an effort to discredit feminism
and prevent women both from joining the movement and from taking
women’s studies classes.
f. Third-wave Feminism (pg.12)
o Has its origins in the 1990s and reflects the thinking, writing, and activism
of women and men who tended to come of age taking for granted the gains
of second wave feminism.
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g. Transnational feminism (pg. 10)
o Recognizes opportunities associated with the development of international
alliances and recognizes opportunities associated with the development of
international alliances and networks for the emancipation of women
o Ignores differences between women and claims solidarity based on shared
conditions, experiences, or concerns.
h. Compulsory heterosexuality (pg. 165)
o The expectation that everyone should be heterosexual, is a central
component of the sexual scripts of most communities and societies.
i. Ableism (pg. 43)
o Discrimination against the mentally and physically disabled, is a direct
result of social factors that actively create standards of normality against
which ability/ disability is constructed.
j. Privilege (pg. 45)
o Advantages people have by virtue of their status or position in society
o Earned privilege that results, for example, from earning a degree, or
fulfilling responsibilities
k. Horizontal hostility (pg. 56)
Is when individuals direct the resentment and anger they have about their
situation onto those who are of equal or lesser status.
l. Gender swapping
o Web users are able to take another gender. Men create ‘feminine
identities for themselves, and women create ‘masculineidentities for
m. Homophobia
o The societal fear or hatred of lesbians and gay men, functions to maintain
this as an insult.
n. Internalized oppression (pg. 56)
o Means that we not only police ourselves but also police one another,
encouraging compliance with institutions that may oppress
o. Lifestyle feminism (pg. 35)
o Lifestyle feminism ushered in the notion that there could be as many
versions of feminism as there were women.
p. Gender socialization (pg. 108)
o Through gender socialization we are taught and learn the appropriate
thinking and behaviours associated with being a boy or girl in any given
q. Transgender (pg. 108)
o People who consider themselves transgender or who claim a gender
identity or expression different from the one assigned at their birth by their
family and community.
o Identifying oneself as transgender means resisting the social construct of
gender into either masculinity or femininity – transgender people push at
the boundaries of gender and help reveal its constructed nature by refusing
to identify in any distinct category.
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r. Genderqueer
o New term – combined alternative gender identities and sexualities,
although you might see it used to imply someone who is transgendered
without concern for sexual identity
o Describes a person who is a nonconformist in challenging existing
constructions and identities
o Describes a social movement resisting the traditional categories of
s. Tombois ( pg 135)
o Female bodied individuals who lay claim to the social category ‘man
o Adopted term in lesbi and gay
o In Indonesia, are female embodied individuals who lay claim to the social
category “man”. They speak of themselves as men, dress and act like men.
Text article page 135.
t. Androgyny
o Lack of gender differentiation or a balanced mixture of recognizable
feminine and masculine traits
o Lack of gender differentiation or a balanced mixture of recognizable
feminine and masculine traits. Bottom of text page 108.
u. Transvestism
o Involves occasional wearing of the other sexes clothes for sexual self-
arousal or pleasure
o Now more politely called cross genders, occasionally wear clothes of the
opposite sex. Page 159
v. Masculinity
o Masculinity has been constructed from the classical traits of
intelligence, courage, and honesty, with the addition of two other key
dimensions, one revolves around potent sexuality and an affinity for
violence. Another dimension of masculinity is the provider role,
composed of ambition, confidence, competence, and strength
o Srong, independent, in control, out of touch emotionally. Text page 108.
w. Femininity (pg. 116)
o Soft, passive, domestic, nurturing, emotional, dependent, sensitive –
all these qualities keep women in positions of subordination and
encourage them to do the domestic and emotional work of society
o passive, dependent, intuitive and emotional
x. Gender ranking
o The valuing of one gender over the other. It is okay to be a girl and have
masculine traits but not okay to be a male and emulate female traits. Text page
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