Women and Gender Studies Midterm 1

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Women & Gender Studies
Charles Davidson

Women and Gender Exam Notes 6/6/2013 2:56:00 PM Basic Terms and Concepts Sex  Biological / Scientific term - difference between male (x,y) and female (x,x)  Genitals o “Differential” o Damaged through birth or surgery o “Abnormal” - intersexuality  Hormones o Different - geological area, time period o Male and females have both (estrogen and testosterone) o Age - hormones decrease (menopause)  Chromosomes o Chromosomal testing - cannot determine gender o Women can have - (x,y) o Male can have - (x,x) Gender  Behavioural, attitudinal, psychological and emotional differences between male (masculine) and female (feminine)  Changes over time - what is considered to be masculine / feminine  Changes from one society to the next o Behaviours - reverse gender roles  Families assign genders as a child o Family has 6 boys - need a female role Gender Roles  Characteristics - culturally appropriate o Masculinity (men and boys) o Femininity (women and girls) Patriarchy  General pattern of male dominance o Powerful institutions (family, education system, politics, law)  Universal, there is no matriarchy - female dominant society o Rare women take a lead role (queen, president, prime minister) Compare Women’s Status  Art o Literature of society (music, paining, magazines, television) o Impression of how society views women  Body type  Economics o Poor women o Pay o Types of jobs o Financial values compared to men’s jobs  Education o Literacy rates o Average level - women’s education to men’s education  More men getting masters degree o Underdeveloped countries - not allowed to go to school  Law o Legal representation? o Not considered as a “person” - 1930’s o Civil rights? o Role - creating and enforcing rights o Crimes  Experience most  Penalized for  Politics o Can vote - 1918 o Do not have political representation  Sexuality o Right to access and control over their bodies o Access to medical care?  Free  Easy to get to Feminism st  1 wave - liberal, focus on basic legal equality  2 ndwave - Marxist/socialist, focus largely on work  3 rdwave - ongoing and unnamed, focus on diversity 1 Wave Women 6/6/2013 2:56:00 PM Enlightenment Roots th  Late 17 century to French Revolution 1789  Emphasis on the individual as rational being  Every human capable of rational thought - women were not included, were not considered human being  Women of the enlightenment o Lived under couverture - “one flesh” doctrine / common law  Held no property, custodial or legal / civil rights during marriage o Not considered to be human beings o Protected by husband or father o Rape - women were not composited (husband or father got it) o No legal right over money o No real power  Powerful roles - host salons (“rooms”) o Support thinker, make ideas, connecting, encouraging  European Feminism - coming out of enlightenment o Took up where liberal enlightenment thinkers left off  persons were created rational o Mary Wollstonecraft  Concerned - education, power, goals limited do to attracting the “right” husband  Argued against claim - women and men are naturally different o John Stuart and Harriet Mill  Husband and wife team  Agreed with liberal enlightenment theory  Women’s status - measure of a society’s civilization and level of social evolution  Women treated the same - able to contribute to battering society  John Mill - women were educated and given the same options as men they would still choose to be mothers  Liberal Feminism in North America o Late 1700s – early 1800s  Closely aligned with abolitionism (abolishment of slavery) o Sarah Grimke  Work rooted in the anti slavery movement  Ability to reason, Bible as moral basis - women’s condition was like that of slaves  Owned by their husbands and masters  Denied freedom of opportunity - education o Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony  Apply natural rights ideas to women - Declaration of Sentiments  Used motherhood - argument for women’s education  Concerned with suffrage  Liberal Feminism in Canada o Concerned with higher education  Professional employment, suffrage(the vote), temperance (prohibition of alcohol, legal personhood) o Access to higher education - Maritimes in 1860’s  Restricted conditions - education, fear of race suicide, limited access to professional jobs o Suffrage required Married Women’s Property Act: stages  School vote - municipal vote  Provincial vote - Manitoba 1916  Quebec - 1940  Federal vote (men in military)  1917  Full vote - 1918 o Granted personhood (senate seats) - 1929 led by the famous five First Wave Liberal Feminism - General Summary  2 phases o First liberal feminist theories - developed in Enlightenment Europe o Liberal activism - North America + Europe in 1800’s – 1930’s  Concerned - attaining equality with men through practical, legal demands  Used petitions, letter writing, mock demonstrations, public speaking, non violent means of getting attention o Others used rioting - arrested and hunger strikes o Argued female suffrage  kinder more ethical society, better motherhood Successes and Criticism  Success o Access to higher education o Getting women into universities o Access professions - teacher, doctors, lawyers, missionaries o Female suffrage (women to vote) o Considered legal persons - own property, business, ages appear in court  Criticisms o Liberal feminism - abandoned its abolitionist roots  Increasingly argued for improved opportunities (racist + classist basis) o Education - change private inequality (undervaluing women’s work + access to professional jobs) o Men were better and equality - most important women needed Second Wave 6/6/2013 2:56:00 PM History  From Marxist theory o Document - communist manifesto o Capitalist society leads to class distinctions  Proletariet vs. bourgeuse  Working class vs. upper class  Lead to inequality o Women used theory to prove that there is a divide in society o Only will provide jobs for female in retail and low paying jobs  Historical Materialism o Major change in subsistence production (hunting, gathering, farming, industrial revolution) -- changes in organization of society, work and family  Argued primitive societies were communal o Agricultural - accumulated surplus: didn’t need gathers (women), forced into domestic work (wasn’t viewed as valuable) o Women became first form of private property  Domestic labour is essential to society and family survival o Value - created and consumed mainly in home  Industrialization - production form private to public sphere o Production from family workers o Household goods to mass produce commodities o Each person - directly tied to how much money they earn, not the products of their labour o Belief - women’s domestic labour is a natural extension of biological roles (home work seem valueless) nd  2 wave officially launched (in USA) by 1963 publication of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique o Frustration of the isolated, suburban, unemployed, housewife and mother rang true with so many women Causes of Women’s Oppression  Capitalism, and the unequal division of labour  Marxist – Socialist feminists - focus on economic dependence of women, gender division of labour, women’s relation to work  Paid public labour producing goods - domestic labour, child care are not productive  Focus on domestic labour - enables capitalist system o Function at a fraction of real cost o Generating appearance that labour is unpaid (valueless) Major Aims and Goals  Abolish workplace discrimination o Both paid and unpaid for all working women Specific Issues or Values  Double Day o Women work for wages + continue to assume the bulk of domestic work  Gendered Division of Labour o Different types of work as designated as males or female appropriate o Awards those jobs performed by men - higher pay and social status  Occupational Segregation o Clustering of women in types of work o Caring work (service industry and retail jobs)  Pay Inequality o Make consistently less then men across all types of statistical categories  Glass Ceiling o Career aspirations are thwarted by gendered factors o Refusal of male employees to accept orders from female bosses  Part Time Work o Characteristic of women’s labour force o Offers flexibility o Low pay, no benefits, little skill or training, limited opportunities for advancement  Feminization of Poverty o Women experience poverty more frequently than men o More lasting then men’s o Women’s more related to gender  Globalization o Movement of a large corporation into their country - lots of waged jobs on “global assembly line” o Subject to long hours in dangerous work conditions, underpaid, lack of family life Central Methods  Strikes, protests, unionization, working through legal and governmental system Major Successes  Marxist – Socialist feminism - many changes in women’s work o Pay, employment, equal legislation, daycare, parental leave, expanding occupational choices for women, grater career advancement  Canada launched the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in 1970 o Filed 167 recommendations for government to change in women’s status Major Criticisms  Focused on the influence of work related issues  Fails to account for discrimination against w
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