In order to test and estimate the difference between two population means,
we draw random samples from each of two populations.
̅ ̅ is normally distributed if the (original) population distributions are
normal. ; is approximately normally distributed if the (original) population is
not normal, but the samples’ size is sufficiently large (greater than 30).
An F-Test is a hypothesis test that revolves around the variance; its used to
find out if the variances of 2 populations are equal or unequal.
In a Matched Pair experiment, there is a logical tie between the two data
sets. We list the raw data for Group A and the Group B beside each other, and
then we subtract the pair to get the Differences column (Group A – 1 = 1 …).1
We then compute the Sample Mean, Sample Standard Deviation, and Sample
N using the differences column.
An unbiased estimator of p –1p is2pˆ − 1ˆ (t2e difference between the
The problem objective is to analyze the relationship between interval
variables; regression analysis is the first tool we will study.
Regression analysis is used to predict the value of one variable (the
dependent variable) on the basis of other variables (the independent
variables). Dependent variable: denoted Y. Independent variables: denoted
X 1 X2….Xk
If we are interested only in determining whether a relationship exists, we
employ correlation analysis.
Simple Linear Regression examines the relationship between two variables.
Mathematical equations describing these relationships are also called
models, and they fall into two types: deterministic or probabilistic.
Probabilistic Model: a method used to capture the randomness that is part
of a real-life process.
To create a probabilistic model, we start with a deterministic model that
approximates the relationship we want to model and add a random term