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Midterm

# Formula Sheet Midterm - ADMS 2320 - 5 STAR FORMULA SHEET

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York University

Administrative Studies

ADMS 2320

all

Fall

Description

Popular Descriptive Statistics are methods of organizing summarizing and presenting data in a convenient and informative way These Eg x is hours of study and y is grade 22methods include Graphical Techniques and Numerical Techniques nxyxyxyyxmmyixiInferential Statistics is set of methods used to draw conclusions or inferences about characteristics of populations based on 1040016000sxy2555253025275data from a sample N3865644225520Statistical Inference is the process of making an estimate prediction or decision about a population based on a sample Sample 107010049007004Conclusions and estimates are not always going to be correct so we build into statistical inference a measure of reliability the 5158522572251275confidence level and the significance level yyxxii620100400100002000CovarianceConfidence Level 1a is the proportion of times that an estimating procedure will be correct sxy 58415814309754770Significance Level a measures how frequently the conclusion will be wrong in the long run 1nEg the poll is considered accurate within 34 percentage points 19 times out of 20 Our Confidential level is 95 1920 415581Shortcut for Sample Covariance66671514770s095 while our significance level is 5xy616yx1There are three types of data Interval Nominal and Ordinal data iiyxsiixyDataNot CategoricalIntervalreal number all calculation treated as ordinal or nominal 2nn15812 CategoricalOrderOrdinal ranked order Calculation only based on ordering process 666750814sx May be treated as nominal but not interval616sNo OrderNominal arbitrary numbers represent categories Only calculate based on xyrPopular frequencyMay not be treated as nominal or not interval 24151ss2yxSingle set of Nominal Data Use Frequency distribution and Relative Frequency Tables Bar and Pie 166745430975syHistogram is most important graphical method for single set of Interval Data it doesnt only summarize interval data but also 61611rhelp explain probabilities 2oNumber of classes intervals133 log n sCoefficent of xy11817666750ssxxoClass widthLargest observationSmallest observationNumber of Classes rSample Correlation11rssCrossSectional DataObservations measured at the same point in time 2yx3112211667454ssyyTimeSeries DataObservations measured at successive points in timeLine chart r 1Strong positive linear relationshipSkewness A skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to either the right or the left r0No linear relationships6667151xyModality A unimodal histogram is one with a single peak while a bimodal histogram has two peaksr 1 Strong negative linear relationship99980rBell Shape A special of symmetric unimodal histogram r056Moderately strong positive 31122111817ssyxr 01Weak negative Ogive is a graph of a cumulative relative frequency distribution We use Ogive to answer about 48 of the students have first CHAPTER 6income lower than 3000 85 lower than4500 etcTwo Nominal VariableContingency Table and Bar Chart twodimensionalMarginal Probabilities are computed by adding across rows and down columns Two Interval VariableScatter diagram to explore the relationship between 2 interval data BBPA12iA203555Independent variableX Horizontal axis Dependent variableY Vertical axis2Marginal Joint A153045Linearity Linear Rela Scatter diagramPositive or Negative strong or weak or nonlinear relations 2ProbabilitiesProbabilitiesPB3565100iIf a distribution is symmetricalIf the distribution is nonsymmetrical and skewedthe mean median an

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