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OB - ADMS 2400 Final Notes .docx

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Keith Lehrer

Chapter 2 – Social Perception & Attribution – Factors Influencing Individual Decision – Making What is Perception? - The process of interpreting one’s environment - One of the major function is recognition of objects - People must recognize objects to meaningfully interact with their environment - More focus on social perception than object perception because OB’s focus is on people - Social Cognition – how people perceive one another Four Stage Sequence 1. Selective Attention/Comprehension - People are constantly bombarded by physical and social stimuli in the environment - Attention – being consciously aware of someone or something – can be focused on either info from the environment or memory - Salient Stimuli – people tend to pay attention to it. Something is salient when it stands out from its context 2. Encoding and Simplification - Observed info is not stored in memory in its original form – encoding is required - Encoding means interpreting or translating raw materials/ information into mental representations - Schemata – mental pictures of an event or object - Encoding outcomes o People possess different info in the schemata used for information o Our moods/emotions influence our focus of attention and evaluations of others o People tend to apply recently – used cognitive categories during encoding o Individual differences influence encoding 3. Storage and Retention - Long – term memory - Made up of 3 compartments  categories of information about events, semantic materials and people 4. Retrieval and Response - Retrieve information from memory when they make judgments and decisions o The process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information stored in the long – term memory o Retrieving a summary judgment that was already made Managerial Implications 1. Hiring - Implicit cognition – any thought or belief that is automatically activated without conscious awareness - First, train managers to understand and reduce this type of hidden bias - Second, you can reduce bias by using structured as opposed to unstructured interviews and by relying on evaluations from multiple interviews rather than just one or two people 2. Performance Appraisal - Its important for managers to accurately identify the employee behaviors and results indicative of good performance at the beginning of a performance review cycle - Managers are advised to use more objectively – based measures of performances as much as possible because subjectively indicators are prone to bias and inaccuracy 3. Leadership - Employees evaluations of leader effectiveness are influenced strongly by their schemata of good and poor leaders - Good Leader: assigning specific tasks to group members; tell others that they’re doing well; specific goals for the group; letting others make decisions; trying to get the group to work together as a team; maintaining definite standards of performance 4. Communication and Interpersonal Influence - Social perception – a screening process that can distort communication, both coming and going 5. Workplace Aggression, Bullying and Antisocial Behaviour - Employees behaved aggressively toward co-workers and displayed antisocial behaviours such as swearing, making fun of someone, and taking home organizational property without consent when they believed that they were being treated unfairly - Remembering that perceptions of fairness are in they eye of the beholder 6. Physical and Psychological Well – Being - The negatively bias can lead to both physical and psychological problems Stereotypes and Other Perceptual Errors - Managers can use knowledge of perceptual outcomes to help them interact more effectively with employees - Stereotype Formation and Maintenance - A stereotype is an individuals set of beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of a group – not always negatives - Stereotypes are an important component of the perception process - Important to recognize errors in perception and shortcuts to processing our perception as they can lead to dangerous practices within an organization - Four Step Process - Categorizing people - Infer that all people within a particular category possess the same traits of characteristics - Form expectation for people to behave according to our stereotypes - Maintained by overestimating the frequency of stereotypic behavior by others Chapter 7 – Effective Communication – Krienter Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process - Communication – the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver, and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved - Perceptual Model of Communication – process in which receivers create their own meaning - Noise – interference with the transmission and understanding of a message - Supervisors/Managers can improve communication by encouraging employees to try to minimize the noise levels around their work stations, and reduce office distractions/noise Barriers to Effective Communication 1. Personal Barriers that commonly influence communication include: a. Ability to effectively communicate b. The way people process and interpret information c. The level of interpersonal trust between people d. The existence of stereotypes and prejudices e. Egos of the people communicating f. The ability to listen g. The natural tendency to evaluate or judge a sender’s message h. The inability to listen with understanding 2. Physical Barriers pertain to distance, objects, time, work and office noise 3. Semantic Barriers show up as encoding and decoding errors because these praises of communication involve transmitting and receiving words and symbols. Cultural diversity is a key contributor Communication Styles 1. Assertiveness – expressive and self – enhancing and is based on the “ethical notion that is not right or good to violate our owns or others’ basic human rights 2. Aggressive – expressive and self –enhancing and strives to take unfair advantage of others 3. Non – Assertiveness – characterized by timid and self - denying behavior. Its ineffective because it gives the other person an unfair advantage - Employees may improve their communication competence by being more assertive and less aggressive Formal vs. Informal Channels - Formal o Authorized and used by all employees in a common/open manner o Follow structural protocol in a public manner therefore it takes time to “get the message alert” - Informal o Does not follow the chain of command o Skips management levels and by passes lines of authorization o Travels quickly o Throughout the organization Factors Involved on Maintaining Effective Communication as Organizations Move Toward Using More Electronic Devices in the Workplace - Challenge: maintain effective interpersonal communication while moving toward greater use of electronic devices in the workplace - It has a clear advantage (accounting/economically) Chapter One – What is Organizational Behaviour? OB – a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations Role of Management Theory 1. Classical Management Scholars - Frederick Taylor (1856 -1917)  “father” of scientific management; focused on designing optimal and efficient work processes and tasks - Max Weber (1864 – 1920)  often associated with the term bureaucracy. Weber focuses on the entire organization. An organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through a strict chain of command, format rules, and procedures, high specialization and centralized decision making - Productivity problems if and when they occurred were likely viewed at the job level as the result of design flaws, failures to implement specified process or inadequate working conditions and at the result of deficient structural characteristics 2. Humans Relations Movement - Field of study that recognizes that the psychological attributes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviors - Productivity problems -- worker alienation from the organization; failure of the work to satisfy important personal needs or goals - Low organizational commitment or work-group norms encouraging low rather than high performance in other words – very little casual emphasis on the characteristics of formal organization 3. Contemporary Management Theory - Recognizing the dependencies between the classical approach and the human relations approach Integrative Model of Organizational Behaviour 1. Individual Outcomes - The right-most portions of the model contains the two primary outcomes of interest to organizational behaviours researchers (and employees and managers in organizations): job performance and organizational commitment - Most employees have two primary goals for their working lives: to perform their jobs well and to remain members of an organization that they respect - Most managers have two primary goals for their employees: to maximize their job performance and to ensure that they stay with the firm for a significant length of time 2. Individual Mechanisms - Directly affect job performance and organizational commitment – these include: job satisfaction, stress, motivation, trust/justice/ethics, learning and decision making 3. Individual, Group and Organizational Context - Individual mechanisms are influenced by several important contexts that explains behavior - Personality, Cultural Values and Ability o Influence how we behave to work and the kinds of tasks that interest us, and might account for our responses to events that happen on the job - Team Characteristics and Processes o Explore the structure of effective work groups, such as their norms, their roles and the way members depend on one another - Power and Influence o Summarize the process by which individuals attain authority over others - Leadership Styles and Behaviours o Capture the specific actions that leaders take to influence others at work - Organizational Structure o Dictates how the units within the firm link to other units. Sometimes structures are centralized around a decision making authority; other times, structures are decentralized affording each unit some autonomy - Organizational Culture o Captures “the way things are” and the values, norms and rules that shape employee attitudes and behaviours Chapter 2 – Behavioral Outcomes / Chapter 3 (pg. 60 – 64) Job Performance – Employee behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals 3 Broad Categories 1. Task Performance - Behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods/services that the organizational produces - Routine Task Performance involves well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands - Adaptive Task Performance involves thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands - Because of the increasing pace of change in the workplace due to globalization, technological advances and the greater prevalence of knowledge intensive work, adaptability is becoming increasingly important type of performance - Job Analysis – a process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs - When organizations find it impractical to use job analysis to identify the set of behaviours needed to define task performance they can turn to the National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2. Citizenship Behaviour – “good soldiers” - Voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place st - 1 Category – Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviour – which is going beyond normal job expectations to assist support, and develop co – workers and colleagues nd o Helping, Courtesy and Sportsmanship - 2 Category – Organizational Citizenship Behaviour -- going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organizations as well as defending the organization and beyond loyal to it. o Voice, Civic Virtue, Boosterism 3. Counterproductive Behaviour – “bad soldiers” - Employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment - Property Deviance refers to behaviours that harm the organization’s assets and possessions o Sabotage – purposeful destruction of equipment, organization processes or company products o Theft – stealing company products - Production Deviance refers to intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output o Substance Abuse o Wasting Resources - Political Deviance – behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other individuals
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