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adms 2400 OB midterm review

5 Pages

Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Joanne Gray

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Perception 1. Information processing model  Stage 1:selective attention – consciously aware of something or someone  Stage 2: encoding & simplification – raw information into mental representation (varies from person)  Stage 3: Storage & retention – store info in long-term memory (about person or event)  Stage 4: retrieval & response – info is retrieved from memory and decisions/judgments are made according 2. Workplace implications  Training, build awareness, structured interviews 3. Perceptual biases & errors  Primacy effect – reliance on early cues, long lasting impact  Recent effect – reliance on last impressions  Central tendency – stay neural from judgments  Halo – a generalization  Leniency – “everything is good” type of people  Contrast – comparison in every aspect  Stereotypes – generalize about people in social categories, help develop impressions, categorize certain traits about people, help process information about others quickly (resulting in lasting impression)  gender, racial, age  Diversity – differences among employees characteristics, and other aspects 4. Attribution – assign causes or motives to explain peoples behavior  Dispositional attrib. – personality/intellectual characteristics unique to behavior (intelligence)  Situational attrib. – external situations or environment cause behavior (bad weather) 5. Attribution cues – external cues or hints that make conclusions  Consistency cues – engage in behavior regularly? High consistency leads to dispositional attributions  Consensus cues – is it unique to one person. Low consensus leads to dispositional attribution  Distinctiveness cues – engage in behavior in many situations, or to distinctive one situation  Low distinctiveness leads to dispositional attribution 6. Attribution biases  Actor observer effect – actor and observer to view the causes of the behavior differently. Actors to situational factors and observers to dispositional. Behavioral outcome 7. Task performance (positive)  Behaviors that directly involve the transformation of organizational resources to goods or services  Routine task – well known habitual responses by employees to predictable tasks  ie assembly line  Adaptive task performance – thoughtful responses by employee  How well things are done 8. Citizenship behavior (positive)  Voluntary, informal and spontaneous behavior  Is not rewarded by performance evaluation  Helping others, being a good sport  Interpersonal– discretionary beyond normal job, helping, courtesy, sportsmanship  Organizational – voice (speaking up), civic virtue (participation), boosterish (positive rep of organization)  The effectiveness of work units is improved  Become more vital during vital organizational crises 9. Counterproductive behavior (negative)  Discretionary employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goals  Can be escalated  Property deviance – sabotage, theft – harm of organizational assets  Production deviance – intentionally reducing organizational efficiency – wasting resources, substance abuse  Political deviance – Gossip and incivility, intentionally disadvantage other individuals from power  Personal aggression- hostile verbal and physical actions such as harassment and abuse  Represent a pattern of behavior 10.Withdrawal behavior  EVLN model –EXIT, VOICE, LOYALTY, NEGLECT – to negative work events  Physical withdrawal -physical escape long or short term , quitting, absenteeism, lateness  Psychological withdrawal – psychological escape, daydreaming, cyberloafting  Withdrawals are progressive 11.Performance management  Behaviorally anchored rating scale – assessing job performance  360 degree feedback – all around performance evaluation Communication  Sources of error – length of message, attitude and stereotypes  Informal – interpersonal communication  Formal – political communication  Need to figure the benefits of communication  Direct and short, competent and lots of channels for communication  Listening skills – self awareness, attending behavior, summarizing, resolution 12.Assertive –directly in win/win way 13.Aggressive – directly in a hostile win/lose way 14.Passive aggressive – indirectly, non-verbalized way. Not being able to say what you want and acting aggressive 15.Passive – not saying anything, and indirectly letting people walk over you 16.Communicat
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