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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400

Lecture 1: What is OB? -Three levels of analysis (organization ex: organizational structure and culture, group ex: leadership syles and behaviors, & individual ex: job performance and individual commitment) ROLE OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES -Classical School of Mgmt (Fredrick Tilley): Theory X Approach to Mgmt -assumes that thinking of people as machines will increase productivity -CONS: little autonomy, little independence -Human Relations School: Theory Y Approach -participative mgmt styles where people must be involved and motivated -people don‟t just work for money, they have individual needs too -individual needs much be satisfied (social, power, recognition etc) -HR School and OB is more aligned with Theory Y Lecture 3: Behavioral Outcomes (Organizational Commitment) -Job Performance: collection of behaviors that have an impact on organizational goals. Four things that affect overall performance are listed below 1. Task performance: whether employees are completing set tasks -Routine Tasks: tasks that are done on a daily basis (ex: teaching class) -Adaptive Tasks: will not do every day, but in unexpected situation (proactive approach) *Whether a firm requires more routine or adaptive tasks depends on the organization 2. Citizenship Behaviors: voluntary employee activities that may not be rewarded -Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior: voluntary behavior benefitting co-workers, colleagues, or customers (ex: being supportive, thinking positive, encouraging) +Creates a positive organizational culture which may lower turnover due to a mutually supportive environment +Creates a positive impact on customers -Organizational Citizenship Behavior: voluntary behavior benefitting the larger organization, or the organization as a whole (Ex: Voice, Civic Virtue, Boosterism) *Voice: expressing concern by suggesting how to resolve problems *Civic Virtue: Giving in extra effort by showing up to optional events, meetings etc within an organization beyond job requirement *Boosterism: projecting positive image of your organization to others 3. Organizational commitment: an employee‟s desire to remain a member of the organization. This can be because of positive reputation, positive relationship with employees, knowledge, perks/rewards, pay, or challenges -Continuance Commitment: cost-based reasons, hassle to start again (job security) -Affective Commitment: emotion-based reasons, likes employees and organization. This type of commitment is most important from a manager‟s POV because it demonstrates high levels of ICB and the mutual support increases performance -Normative Commitment: obligation-based reasons, employees have been good, they have paid for training and for MBA, always gives off days, so you feel a sense of obligation. 4. Counterproductive behavior: intentionally engaging in behavior that has a negative impact on organizational performance (ex: property deviance, production deviance, substance abuse, political deviance, sick days, day dreaming, harassment, deferral of workload, texting at work etc) *people who engage in one form of counterproductive behavior are likely to engage in other forms as well, as it is dangerous *intoxicates organizational culture. Can be due to lack of job satisfaction or job inequity *impact on individual and organizational performance RESPONDING TO NEGATIVE SITUATIONS -Exit: leave the situation or context (ex: asking for a transfer to another dept) -Voice: Complain, offer solutions, improving things by pointing out problems and suggesting solutions -Loyalty: Doesn‟t say anything, but hopes things will improve (positive thoughts, but does nothing) -Neglect: Effort and interest declines, motivation and interest goes down (withdrawing into yourself) WITHDRAWAL BEHAVIOR -Physical Withdrawal: unhappy in organization, so deliberately withdrawing evident behavior (ex: lateness, missing meetings, absenteeism, quitting etc) -Psychological Withdrawal: negative impact due to being bored (ex: daydreaming, socializing, pretending to look busy, off task at work etc) BEING A GOOD TOP PERFORMER -be good at both, routine and adaptive tasks -engage in both ICB and OCB -do not engage in counterproductive behavior MANAGING PERFORMANCE 1. Management by Objectives (MBO): evaluations and reward system is based on whether specific performance goals have been met. Manager and employee set the objectives and create a measure for the objective. They then decide how it will be rewarded and what will be done if they have not been met 2. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS): identify specific behaviors that are required to evaluate job performance 3. 360 Degree Feedback: using multiple sources/perspectives to evaluate employee performance for overall performance (cons: credibility of sources, biases, subjectivity) Lecture 5: Attitudes, Emotions, and Moods -Attitudes: positive or negative feelings about a person, event, or object. Attitudes are related to values in the sense that they are very open and direct *attitudes may affect behaviors, but there is not always a causal link, as an attitude could be “masked” because of status differences (ex: employee vs manager) -Job Satisfaction: how you feel and what you think about your job. It is an attitude towards work which can be positive or negative (ex: can be impacted by organizational culture, or learning opportunities). People experience job satisfaction when their job brings them value (things they want to attain or experience). The two things that impact job satisfaction are listed below 1. Value Content: what the value is about (ex: Freedom? Money?) 2. Value Intensity: how important is it? How strongly is it valued? *of the two, intensity has more effect. It is not necessarily whether you get it or not, but how valuable and important it is to you. Thus, people vary in job satisfaction levels. These values are multidimensional. People tend to think about different aspects of their job when they are evaluating their performance. Below is a demo of why JS is likely to be high/low according to the Job Characteristics Model a) The 5 Commonly Assessed Work Values are: 1. The work, itself: challenging work that uses ones skills? *VISAF -Variety: Does the employee do diff things? -Identity: Does employee associate himself or herself with the task? Are they passionate about the task? -Significance: do they know how their work contributes to their company and what impact it has on the company? -Autonomy: -Feedback: 2. Co-workers: Supportive? Helpful? Fun? Trustworthy? Sociable? 3. Supervision: is your boss polite? Fair? Competent? Supportive? 4. Promotions: Equity (treating people fairly)? Opportunity? 5. Pay: Equity? Opportunity? ..related to promotions b) Achieving the Critical Psychological States: *experiencing meaningfulness in work, identifying with task,
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