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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
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1 LECTURE 8: TRUST AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE Trust: -trust affects job performance and organizational commitment (since trusting increases the likelihood of an emotional bond developing) -benefits task performance and ability to focus + increases OCB and ICB -putting yourself at risk for another person (trust people to make fair decisions and to treat you fairly) -influences citizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior -willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations - TRUSTOR [one that is trusting] trusts  TRUSTEE [the person who is being trusted] -affects our everyday behavior; every job implies that has something is in stake, so employers and customers must trust -the following dimensions of trust can influence trustworthiness: 1. DISPOSITION BASED TRUST: trust that is rooted in one‟s own personality; less to do with authority, more to do with trustor (ex: when you don‟t know someone so well) -TRUST PROPENSITY: a general expectation that another can be relied upon (gullible) Shaped by early childhood experiences (nature and nurture) -high or low depends on context -am I a person who finds it easy to trust others? Propensity could include past experiences, knowledge, cultural values, how we‟ve been raised etc. -high trust can lead to being vulnerable, low trust can lead to suspicion and people may not trust you in return 2. COGNITION BASED TRUST: trust that is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority‟s trustworthiness; cognitions we‟ve formed about the authority (got to know them better, so judging experiences). Based on 3 dimensions: -Competence: skills, abilities, and areas of expertise that enable an authority to be successful in some specific area (ex: can‟t trust a doctor if you‟re uncertain he is one) [ex: have they got the right qualifications? Are they fair with other people?] If you don‟t know someone, you‟ll make assumptions about their competence -Character: the perception that an authority adheres to a set of values and principles that the trustor finds acceptable. This dimension implies integrity (ex: low= Enron) [ex: are they competent? Do they have trustworthy character?] -Benevolence: the perception that an authority wants to do good for an employee, apart from any selfish or profit centered motive [ex: Do they have my best interest at heart?] 3. AFFECT BASED TRUST: trust that depends on our feelings towards the authority that are beyond rational judgment (ex: Do I like this person or share something in common with them?) -nothing to do with competency, just a matter of not liking that person **organizations could be more trustworthy by emphasizing corporate social responsibility Justice: -used to identify how fairly employees are treated by their authorities -fairness, equity -all 4 justices have strong correlations with employee trust levels -employees are much more likely to trust employers who follow the 4 rules of justice -employees can judge the fairness of an authority‟s decision making along 4 dimensions: 1. Distributive Justice: perceived fairness of decision making outcomes (pay, rewards, evaluations) -equity norm: maximizing productivity of individual employees 2 -distribution of outcome -equality norm (goal oriented): everyone receives the same reward, regardless of their productivity (ex: term group project for class) [ex: student  exam papers  marking process (procedural justice) mark (distributive justice) ] -allocating outcomes fairly  Equity Norm: people will get what they deserve  Equality Norm: everyone will get the same reward  Need Norm: everyone will get the rewards that they need 2. Procedural Justice: perceived fairness of decision-making processes (voicing employee opinions) -especially important when outcomes are bad -people are not forgiving of procedural justice, but are of distributive justice -make decisions and evaluating in a consistent, unbiased, and accurate way (evone being evaluated the same) -perceptions of procedural justice from the standpoint of those being evaluated, is important 3. Interpersonal Justice: perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment received by employees from authorities according to two rules:  The Respect Rule: treating someone in a respectful and dignified manner  The Propriety Rule: using proper language and behavior -violations of IJ reduce job satisfaction, increase depression/anxiety/burnout -communicate decision-making details in a respectful, comprehensive and honest manner **perceptions of interpersonal injustice can have a long-term effect on organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, and job performance 4. Informational Justice: perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from other authorities according to two rules:  The Justification Rule: authorities explain decision making processes and outcomes clearly in a timely fashion (providing sufficient info about the decision that they made for ex: job rejection)  The Truthfulness Rule: honesty and openness in communication (top-down communication: should explain to lower level workers with appropriate media source at the right time with the right person) -particularly important during performance evaluations where managers must provide accurate feedback -also important during recruitment and selection where Realistic Job Previews (RJP) are essential to ensure expectation are met (must know what a job involves to have an accurate representation and to set expectations accordingly) -employees are more willing to accept „negative news‟, rather than being misled or uninformed 3 LECTURE 9: TEAM CHARACTERSTICS & PROCESSES -group: a collection of two or more people -team: works interdependently (works together), over a period of time, engaged in task to reach common goals (bring different skill sets. Especially good for complex tasks) TYPES OF TEAMS*:  Work Teams: relatively permanent team, members work together to produce goods or provide services (don‟t necessarily need a team leader, may be self-managed or task-specific); usually require a full time commitment from members  Management Teams: relatively permanent, working at managerial-level, affecting the entire organization  Parallel Teams: composed of members from various departments, ex: operations + R&D for marketing (require only part time commitment from members)  Project Teams: one-time task, people with different skills, complex tasks, require input and expertise from other members, can be long term or short term  Action Teams: working together for a limited time period, complex tasks, visible tasks (ex: event planning team, sports team) VARIATIONS WITHIN TEAMS:  Locations of members: may be geographically dispersed, so they may meet occasionally or meet virtually (communications can occur electronically or if close, then in person)  Experience of members: may have different levels of experience or expertise (mixed experiences to teach others that are less experienced)  Diversity of skills: may bring different skills, competencies, or knowledge TEAM DEVELOPMENT #1: TUCKERMAN’S MODEL OF TEAM FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE -model does not apply when the team has worked together before since the team already knows each other (they‟ll skip the first 3 stages and will begin performing right away) MODEL OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT #2: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL -nothing gets done until half way through **be aware and keep an eye on the group because of the punctuated equilibrium model. Make sure you‟re clear of deadlines and check regularly on progress Team Interdependence: members of a team are working together. -Task interdependence: members all rely on each other to get work done; creating connections amongst team members -Pooled interdependence, sequential interdependence, reciprocal interdependence, comprehensive interdependence, goal interdependence, outcome interdependence COMPOSING EFFECTIVE TEAMS -mix of people who make up the team; abilities and personalities brought to the team -five aspects of team composition are key: 1. Member Roles: allocating different roles to different members of group (identifying the roles then allocating them among members) 2. Member Ability: disjunctive/ conjunctive / addictive tasks 3. Member Personality: traits determine how teams function and perform. C[A*]NOE (Big Five Personality Traits). Agreeableness is especially important because it demonstrates cooperation and harmony within the group. However, extremely high agreeableness may mean that team members are unable to provide constructive criticism to further.. 4 4. Member Diversity: level of which the members are different from one another. Value in diversity approach/ similarity- attraction approach (Surface Level Diversity [d based on observable traits such as race and age] / Deep-Level Diversity [ d based on observation, experience, personality, behaviors] -[d could be beneficial because more knowledge and perspectives. However, d could be counterproductive because people only associate with those like themselves] 5. Team Size/Number of Members: greater number of members is advantageous in management/ project teams (complex tasks), but not for teams engaged in production tasks (routine or less complex tasks). **5-7 is ideal, but it depends on whether the tasks are complex or routine TEAM PROCESSES -composition of effective teams has a direct impact on team processes. -Team Process Gain: aka synergy; important when there is high complexity of tasks; everyone needs to work together to bring together different KSA‟s; don‟t achieve much individually, but excellent as a team (all members don‟t need to be top performers) combination of group is greater than the impact of individuals working on their own -Team Process Loss: don‟t work well together as a group, but are able to perform exceptionally well as individuals (can be due to social loafing, motivational loss, or coordination loss  team outcomes are less than expected since all members are top performers individually (could be due to coordination loss or motiva
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