Organizational Behaviour ADMS 2400 NOTES.docx

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Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Professor
Indira Somwaru

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Description
Organizational Behaviour Lecture #2 - Behavioral Outcomes Learning Objectives The 3 dimensions of job performance include: Task performance, citizenship beh. (team player help voluntary outside expectations), counterproductive and withdrawal behaviour Task Performance Task performance: includes employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods and services that the organization produces -Routine task performance: involves well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands (ex. Flight attendant going through routine safety procedures) -Adaptive task performance: thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands (ex. Flight attendant in emergency is expected to perform manner that is not routine but expected) Being a Good Employee Generate profit, good attitude, customer service, exceeding expectations, accepting feedback Research Method in OB Survey Research, Experimental research ( behaviour is carefully studied in a setting ( lab, company), Naturalistic Observation ( technique in which a scientist systematically records various events and behaviours observed in a work setting), Case Study ( a thorough description of a series of events that occurred in a particular organization What is job Performance? Job performance: employee behaviours that contribute, either positively or negatively, to the accomplishment of organizational goals -task performance (positively), citizenship behaviour (positively), counterproductive behaviour (negatively) Role of Job Analysis Many org. Identify task performance behaviours by conducting a job analysis A job analysis is a process by which an org. Determines requirements of specific jobs Task Performance cont. Task performance behaviours are not simply performed versus not performed Although poor performers often fail to complete required behaviours, it is just as true that the best performers often exceed all expectations for those behaviours What is Citizenship Behaviour? Voluntary employee activities that contributing to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place (types of citizenship beh. :interpersonal, organizational) Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviour Discretionary acts that go beyond normal job expectations to assist, support, and develop co- workers and colleagues –helping, courtesy, sportsmanship Organizational Citizenship Beh. Discretionary behaviours that benefit the larger org. by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations, and being especially loyal to it –voice, civic virtue, Boosterism Citizenship Beh. Relevant in virtually any job, regardless of the particular nature of its tasks, and there are clear benefits of these behaviours in terms of the effectiveness of work units and organizations Become even more vital during organizational crises, when beneficial suggestions, deep employee involvement, and a positive “public face” are critical Why do Employees engage in OCB 1. Personality: just want to make things better 2. Social exchange: give and get. If org. treats well than ill treat them good back 3. Impression management: your fueled by people being impressed by you (want people to think well of them, and do this for benefits (promotion)) Counterproductive Behaviour Counterproductive behaviours are discretionary employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment -directed toward the organization or other individuals Minor or serious Types of Counterproductive Behaviours Counterproductive Behaviours Cont. Property Deviance refers to behaviours that have the organizations assets and possessions. Directed towards the organization with serious consequences -Sabotage -Threat Production Deviance: refers to intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output. Directed toward the org. with relatively minor consequences -wasting resources -Substance abuse Political Deviance refers to behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other ind. rather than the larger org. Relatively minor consequences -Gossiping -Incivility Personal aggression: refers to hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees. Relatively serious consequences (harassment/ abuse) There is evidence that people who engage in one form of counterproductive behaviour also engage in others Counterproductive behaviour is relevant to any job It is often surprising which employees engage in counterproductive behaviour Withdrawal Behaviour A set of actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation Withdrawal behaviours may eventually culminate in quitting the org. WITHDRAWAL BEHAVIOUR Why do employees engage in counterproductive behaviour? Why do employees engage in withdrawal behaviour? What does it mean to be a good performer? Good at the job that falls within the job description Engages in citizenship behaviours directed at both coworkers and the larger org. Refrains from engaging in counterproductive and withdrawal behaviours Performance Management Management by objectives (MBO) is a management philosophy that bases an employees evaluations on whether the employee achieves specific performance goals. -Best suited for managing the performance of employees who work in contexts in which objective measure of performance can be quantified Behavioural anchored rating scales (BARS) assess performance by directly assessing job performance behaviours BARS 5 . makes time for distraught co-workers. Confronts staff who belittle others 4 . Sends cards or visits seriously ill co-workers. Encourages others to raise issues or concerns 3 . Treats all people politely. Listens attentively when others are talking 2 . Interrupts others before they finish speaking. Laughs when others are put down or ridiculed 1 . Tells racially or ethnically derogatory jokes. Plays harmful pranks Performance Management Cont.. The 360 degree feedback approach is a performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, co-workers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves Lecture 3: Perception and Individual Differences Class 2 Perception and Ind. Diff. Type A behaviour pattern: involving high levels of competitiveness, time, urgency, and irritability Type B behaviour pattern: characterized by a casual, laid back style… opposite of type A THE BIG 5 C-Conscientiousness: Dependable, organized, reliable “NOT” careless, sloppy A-Agreeableness: Kind, Cooperative, Sympathetic, Helpful “NOT” Critical, Selfish, rood N- Neuroticism: Nervous, Moody, Emotional, jealous “NOT” Calm, Steady, Relaxed O-Openness: Curious, Creative, Sophisticated, Simple “NOT” Simple, Traditional, Inartistic E-Extraversion: Talkative, sociable, passionate, bold “NOT” Quiet, Shy, Reserved, Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Individualism-Collectivism : The degree to which a culture has a loosely knit social framework (individualism) or a tight social framework (collectivism) Power Distance: The degree to which a culture prefers or accepts equal power distribution (low power distance) or an equal power distribution (high power distance) Uncertainty Avoidance: The degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguous situations (low uncertainty avoidance) or feels threatened by them (high uncertainty avoidance) Masculinity-Femininity: The degree to which a culture values stereotypically male traits (masc.) or stereotypically female traits (fem) Short-Term vs. Long Term Orientation: The degree to which a culture stresses values that are past- and present-oriented (short-term orientation) or future-oriented (long term orientation) What is ability Refers to the relatively stable capabilities people have to perform a particular range of diff. but related activities. Cognitive ability, Emotional Ability, Physical Ability Cognitive Ability: Verbal, Reasoning spatial, perceptual Emotional Ability: Self- Awareness (ability to understand the emotions In ones self), Other awareness (understand the emotions others are feeling), emotion regulation ( control emotions and recover quickly), use of emotions Physical Ability: Strength, stamina, flexibility and coordination, sensory What is Perception? Process by which people select, organize(categorize), and interpret information Stereotypes: Beliefs that people who belong to certain groups possess certain characteristics Prejudice: negative feelings about people belonging to certain groups Discrimination: a form of neg. behaviour associated with a given stereotype Bases for prejudice: age, physical condition, gender, sexual orientation, race, nationality, religion Perceptual Biases Primary effect, Recency effect, halo effect, projection, contrast effects, leniency effect, central tendency Casual Attribution Causes of Behaviour: Internal: Explanations based on actions for which the individual is responsible Internal: Explanations based on actions for which the ind. Is responsible External: Explanations based on situations over which the ind. Has no control Kelley’s Theory of Casual Attribution: People will believe others’ actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness. Errors/ Biases in Attribution Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others’ are caused by disposition Self-serving Bias: The tendency to attribute own success to self (disposition) and to attribute own failure to the situation Overcoming Biases • Do not overlook the external causes of others’ behaviours • Identify and confront your stereotypes • Evaluate people based on objective factors • Avoid making rash judgements Class 3 Communication Comm. :The process by which info is exchanged between a sender and a receiver Informal Comm • Informal comm.: communications that flow along social and relational ties • Rumors: are messages that transmit info that is almost totally without any basis in fact and is unverifiable • The “grapevine” refers to the pathways along which unofficial information travels Active Listening • Postpone evaluation, Avoid interruption, maintain interest, empathize, organize info, respond Non-verbal comm. Barriers to eff. Comm. Perceptual errors, info overload, filtering, language, culture diff. Gender Diff. Getting credit, confidence, asking questions, apologies, feedback, compliments, upward and downward communication High Context Cultures (asia, latin American, middle eastern) • Infer info from message context, rather than from content • Prefer indirectness, politeness and ambiguity • Convey little info explicitly • Rely heavily on nonverbal signs Low Context Cultures (European, Scandinavian, North American) • Rely more on content rather than on context • Explicitly spell out info • Value directness • See indirectness as manipulative • Value written word more than oral statements Principles of Constructive Feedback Giving Foundation: Mutual trust, Joint Problem solving, do not “vent”—feedback is meant to be helpful When to give: Only when receiver is ready, soon after behaviour occurs What to Give: Focus on behaviour receiver can change, give as much as receiver can handle How to give: be descriptive (avoid blaming, imputing motives), Be specific vs. general WEEK 4 BEHAVIOURAL OUTCOMES Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviour Discretionary acts that go beyond normal job expectations to assist, support, and develop co- workers and colleagues Helping – assisting co-workers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they re first on the job Courtesy – sharing important information with co-workers Sportsmanship - maintaining a positive attitude with co-workers though good times and bad times Organizational Citizenship Behaviours Discretionary behaviours that benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations, and being especially loyal to it. Voice – when an employee speaks up to offer constructive suggestions for change often in reaction to a negative work events. Civic virtue - participation in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level through voluntary meetings, readings, and keeping up with the news that affects the company. Boosterism – positively representing the organization when in public Citizenship Behaviours Relevant in virtually any job, regardless of the particular nature of its tasks, and there are clear benefits of these behaviours in terms of the effectiveness of work units and organizations. Become even more vital during organizational crises, when beneficial suggestions, deep employee involvement, and a positive “public face” are critical. Counterproductive Behaviours Counterproductive behaviours are discretionary employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment. -Directed toward the organization or other individuals -Minor or serious Property deviance refers to behaviours that harm the organization’s assets and possessions. Directed toward the organization with serious consequences -Sabotage – purposeful destruction of equipment, organization processes, or company products -Theft – stealing company products or equipment from the organization Types of Counterproductive Behaviours Production deviance refers to intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output. Directed toward the organization with relatively minor consequences – Wasting resources – using too many materials or too much time to do too little work – Substance abuse – the abuse of drugs or alcohol before coming to work or while on the job Political deviance refers to behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather than the larger organization. Relatively minor consequences – Gossiping – casual conversations about other people in which the facts are not confirmed as true – Incivility - communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous and lacking in good manners Personal aggression refers to hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees. Relatively serious consequences – Harassment - unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague – Abuse - employee assault or endangerment from which physical and psychological injuries may occur  There is evidence that people who engage in one form of counterproductive behaviour also engage in others.  Counterproductive behaviour is relevant to any job  It is often surprising which employees engage in counterproductive behaviour. What Does It Mean to Be a Good Performer?  Good at the job that falls within job description  Engages in citizenship behaviours directed at both coworkers and the larger organization.  Refrains from engaging in the counterproductive behaviours Performance Management Management by objectives (MBO) is a management philosophy that bases an employee’s evaluations on whether the employee achieves specific performance goals. – Best suited for managing the performance of employees who work in contexts in which objective measures of performance can be quantified. Behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS) assess performance by directly assessing job performance behaviours. The 360 degree feedback approach is a performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, co-workers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves WEEK 5 MOTIVATION Motivation is defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence. – Motivation is a critical consideration because job performance is largely a function of two factors: motivation and ability Expectancy Theory Expectancy is a subjective probability, ranging from 0 to 1 that a specific amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance (abbreviated E → P). Instrumentality is a set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from 0 to 1 that successful performance will bring a set of outcomes (abbreviated P → O). Valence reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance (abbreviated V). – Can be positive, negative, or zero Total “motivational force” to perform a given action can be described using the following formula:
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