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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Paul Favaro

■ Motivation: motivation is a set of energetic forces which determines the direction, intention and persistence of an employees' work effort ■ motivation is important for it is a predictor of job performance alongside ability ■ there are two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation ■ Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort because there is a contingency relative to its completion; reward is separate from the task and usually applied from some other - bonuses, raises, recognition ■ Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort because the completion of it in itself is a reward; reward is related to the work/task; usually self applied- job satisfaction, enjoyment, learning in the environment etc. ■ Motivation isn't enough however; moderators include appropriate tools, skills, environment, level, chance, knowledge, ability etc ■ What makes some employees more motivated than others? There are 3 key theories: ■ Expectancy theory: cognitive processes that employees' go through when making choices amongst different voluntary actions. The gist of this theory revolves around what the employee wants, how motivated they are to get what they want, and how likely they are to achieve/ receive what they want ■ Falls under needs and process theories- needs: what motivates the employees' process: how they are motivated ■ 1. expectancy or intensity: how much effort leads to successful performance ■ self efficacy ( self confidence, esteem; do you have the capabilities?) past accomplishments ( your experience in the past with similar tasks) vicarious experiences ( asking others about their experiences with similar tasks) emotional cues ( positive/negative feelings which help or hinder performance) ■ 2. instrumentality: the belief that successful performance will lead to an expected outcome ( seniority/ much less on ability) etc ■ 3. valence: the anticipated outcome associated with successful performance; valence will have a greater meaning and be more successful if its fulfills an employees' needs ■ needs: outcomes that have psychological or physiological consequences ■ Meaning(self actualization) Esteem(self respect) Control(independence) Existence(physiological, safety) Relatedness(love and belonging) ■ Goal Setting theory: the belief that goals are the primary drivers of intensity and persistence ■ Goals must be specific and difficult ( motivate individuals to try their hardest and increase their motivation, but is within their ability) ■ self set goals: goals you make interpersonally in order to track your progression ■ task strategies: problem solving techniques/learning plans which save time, besides trial and error ■ moderators: specific, challenging, task complexity, goal acceptance/commitment, feedback ■ S.M.A.R.T ( specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time sensitive) ■ Management by objectives ■ Equity Theory: a mental ledger of an individual which evaluates inputs/outputs of their own with a comparative other ■ comparative other: an individual who offers a reasonable framework for comparison ■ must make sure that comparisons are FAIR, as discrepancies are often overestimated/underestimated--> MAKE SURE PERCEPTIONS ARE FAIR S.E.E.S ■ over reward equity: guilty, reduce or increase inputs, talk to your manager, cognitive distortion, compare yourself with someone else ■ under reward equity: counterproductive behaviour, lower inputs, talk to your manager, compare yourself with someone else ■ internal comparisons or external comparisons ■ equity distress: internal tensions due to the inconsistencies of inputs/outputs relative to a comparative other ■ cognitive distortion: an attempt to reevaluate your comparison and mentally determine reasons for such inconsistencies to restore balance and eliminate equity distress or internal tension ■ psychological empowerment: deep rooted energy in the belief that you are contributing to some greater purpose ■ MEANING - IMPACT - SELF DETERMINATION - COMPETENCE ■ merit pay, lump sum pay, piece rate, bonuses, gainsharing, profit-sharing ■ MEANING OF MONEY: symbolic and economic value (independence, freedom and respect) ■ managers must make sure that they clarify reward contingencies, have appropriate performance appraisals and appreciate the diverse skills its workforce brings forth: ATTRACTIVEAND ACHIEVABLE--> EXPECTANCY ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT ■ organization commitment: the desire for an employee to remain in an organization ■ Affective commitment: employee stays within an organization because they have an emotional attachment or bond ■ it is important for organizations to promote bonding and socializing to achieve this type of commitment ■ you stay because you want to stay and you feel a sense of sadness if you decide to leave ■ Erosion model: employees with weak links or connections with coworkers are more likely to leave the organization because of a lack of affective commitment/ attachment ■ social influence model: employees' who have links, bonds, or connections to co-workers who leave the organization will increase the chances that they will leave as well/ contagious ■ Continuance commitment: an employee decides to stay within an organization because of the awareness of the costs of leaving ■ It is important for organizations to offer promotions, seniority benefits and competitive benefits packages to achieve such a commitment ■ employee feels like they should stay and feel a sense of anxiety if they decide to leave ■ embededness: a sense of fit between the organization and the community ■ feel a sense of anxiety: loss of promotion, seniority, salary, pay level, experience etc ( time investment) ■ Normative commitment: an employee decides to stay within an organization because they have a sense of obligation towards the company ■ organizations should invest in their employees' to achieve this sort of commitment ex paying for their education ■ employees' feel like they ought to stay and feel a sense of guilt if they decide to leave ■ reciprocity, staying because of their investment, debt ■ focus of commitment: the people, places or things that inspire a desire in the employee to remain in the organization JOB SATISFACTION ■ job satisfaction: the pleasurable emotion/feeling when appraising ones job; what an employee thinks and
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