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ADMS 2400 notes Mid-Term

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

Motivation What is MotivationMotivation is defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee initiates workrelated effort and determines its direction intensity and persistence Motivation is a critical consideration because job performance is largely a function of two factors motivation and abilityEngagement a widely used term in contemporary workplaces that has different meanings depending on the context most often refers to motivation but it can refer to affective commitment Expectancy Theory A theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to makes choices among different voluntary responsesExpectancy is a subjective probability ranging from 0 to 1 that a specific amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance abbreviated EPInstrumentality is a set of subjective probabilities each ranging from 0 to 1 that successful performance will bring a set of outcomes abbreviated POValence reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance abbreviated V Can be positive negative or zeroTotal motivational force to perform a given action can be described using the following formula oMotivational ForceEPx PO x VMotivational force equals zero if any one of the three beliefs is zeroSelfefficacythe belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviours required on some task Need groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences Commonly Studied Needs in OB Existence physiological safetyRelatedness love belongingness Control autonomy responsibility Esteem selfregard growthMeaning selfactualization Extrinsic Motivation desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance Intrinsic Motivation desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward Meaning of Money the idea that money can have symbolic value achievement respect freedom in addition to economic value
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