ADMS2511 - Chapter 7 notes

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2511
Cristobal Sanchez- Rodriguez

Chapter 7 – Wireless Technologies WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES – includes both wireless devices and smartphones. Wireless Devices – wireless devices help make productive use of time. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is the standard that enables wireless devices to access the internet. Previously had micro browsers but now have full-function browsers. They are small to carry and have sufficient computing power. However, they can be used to pass on confidential information. Wireless Transmission Media – broadcasts media without wires over the air or in space such as microwave, satellite, radio and infrared. • Microwave transmission – used for high-volume, long-distance, line-of-sight communication. They have high bandwidth and relatively inexpensive but must have unobstructed line of sight • Satellite – satellite transmission make use of communication satellites. Three types are: Geostationary (GEO), medium earth orbit (MEO), and low earth orbit (LEO). They work with lines of sight as well but the footprint is enormous since the higher the satellite, the larger the footprint. They use broadcast transmission and have high bandwidth. o Global positioning system – a wireless system that uses satellites for users to determine their position anywhere on earth. GPS is supported by 24 MEO satellites that are shared worldwide. o Internet over Satellite (IoS) – allows users to connect to the internet via GEO satellites but may entail a propagation delay. • Radio Transmission – radio-wave frequencies to send data directly between transmitters and receivers. The waves can travel through walls and are fairly inexpensive to install. But it can create interference problems and can be intercepted. o Satellite radio – satellite radio offers uninterrupted quality transmission beamed to the radio from space. • Infrared Transmission – it is a red light not commonly visible to human eyes. Used in remote controls etc. used for short-distance connections. WIRELESS COMPUTER NETWORKS AND INTERNET ACCESS – wireless networks can be arranged by their effective distance: Short-Range Wireless Networks – to connect devices and eliminate wires. They work around a range of 100 feet. • Bluetooth Networks – used to create personal area networks which can be used for communication among computer devices. • Ultra-Wideband Networks – UWB is a high-bandwidth wireless technology with transmission speeds in excess of 100 Mbps. This is good for transmitting media from a PC to a TV. • Near-Field Communications Networks – NFC has the smallest range. It is embedded in cellphone and credit cards. Medium-Range Wireless Networks – these are WLANs and Wi-Fi networks. • Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) – a medium range, Wireless Local area network. A transmitter called a wireless access point is connected to a wired LAN to provide internet access. A hotspot is the area in which the Wi-Fi can provide service. Wi-Fi can be accessed through smartphone and laptops. Most Wi-Fi networks work on the 802.11 standard and have a range about 300 feet. It is low cost. However, users cannot roam from hotspot to hotspot. Some Wi-Fi are free while others charge a fee. • Wireless Mesh Networks – use multiple Wi-Fi networks to create a wide-area network. These a fairly expensive to implement and are failing. Wide-Area Wireless Networks – used for internet over a large geographical area. The network usually operates over the licensed spectrum. The two categories are: • Cellular Radio – cellular telephones use radio waves to provide two-way communication. The communication is done via radio antennas called cells. The technology have several stages o First Generation (1G) – uses analog signals and low bandwidth o Second Generation (2G) – uses digital signals primarily for voice and data up to 10 Kbps o Third Generation (3G) – uses digital signals for voice. Also support web browsing and instant messaging o Fourth Generation (4G) – a network that operates on internet technology in combination with other technologies such as Wi-Fi for increased speeds. • Wireless Broadband or WiMAX – Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access has an access range of up to 31 miles, compared to 300 feet for Wi-Fi and data transfer of up to 75Mbps. It is secure and offers voice and video. MOBILE COMPUTING AND MOBILE COMMERCE – mobile computing is a real-time wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environments. This is different from other forms of computing since it offers mobility and broad reach. The two characteristics cr
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