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ADMS 2511 MIS Notes.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2511
John Kucharczuk

ADMS 2511 MIS Notes Ch 1 Modern Organization in the Global, Web-Based Environment Management information systems (MIS)- deals with the planning of info tech to help people perform tasks related to info processing and management Information technology (IT)- any computer-based tool used with info to support the needs of an org Importance of Planning for IT -a new info system can apply to the whole org, or a specific area of the org Application portfolios- are groups of new system proposals (apps that have to be added/modified) IT Planning -begins with an organizational strategic plan -states the firms mission, goals, and steps to reach those goals -IT architecture describes the way an orgs info resources should be used to accomplish its mission -includes both technical (hardware operating systems) and managerial aspects (managing the IT dpt, how area managers will be involved) IT strategic plan- LT goals that describe the IT infrastructure and major IT initiatives to achieve the organizations goals -it must meet three main objectives: -must be aligned with the orgs strategic plan -must provide for an IT architecture that networks users, apps, and databases -must efficiently allocate IS resources among different projects so they can all be completed on time, within budget, and function properly IT steering committee- composed of managers/staff who rep diff organizational units -they establish IT priorities to ensure MIS function is meeting the orgs needs -it links corporate and IT strategy, approves resource allocation for MIS, establish performance measures for MIS to make sure they are met -ensures that employees get the resources they need to do their job After the IT strategic plan, next is IS operational plan; set of projects in support of the IT strategic plan -includes the mission, IS environment (summary of info needs of functional areas), objectives (goals), constraints (techl, financial, personnel), application portfolio (inventory of present apps, plan of projects to be developed/continued), resource allocation -IT planning is crucial when developing a new product or service Business Processes and Business Process Management Business process- collection of related activities that produce a product or service -many processes cross functional area, some involve only one -excellence in this is the basis for measures of competitive performance -customer satisfaction, cost reduction, cycle and fulfillment time, quality, product differentiation, productivity -business process reengineering improves the efficiency and effectiveness of an orgs business processes -for many orgs when they tried this it was too difficult; impact on employees was too much Business process management (BPM)- tools that support the design, analysis, implementation, management of business processes -BPM helps decrease costs and increase revenue, and can create a competitive adv over time Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions Data, Information, and Knowledge Data items- elementary description of things that are stores but not organized -numbers, letters, figures, sounds, images Eg. Student grade, number of hours an employee works Information- data that has been organized to have meaning Eg. A students name along with their GPA Knowledge- organized data that conveys understanding as it applies to a business problem Eg. Recruiting company finds that most success is found in hiring students with a 3.0 GPA so they only choose to interview those with a 3.0 Information Technology Architecture IT architecture- high-level map of the info assets in an organization -integrates orgs business needs for info, IT infrastructure, and all applications -shows how all aspects of info tech in an organization fit together Information Technology Infrastructure IT infrastructure- physical facilities, IT components/services/personnel that supports the whole org -IT components are the computer hardware, communication technologies -IT personnel are the people -IT services include data management, systems development, security concerns Global, Web-Based Platform Globalization- integration of economic, social, cultural, ecological factors of life that is enabled by IT The 3 Stages of Globalization Thomas Friedman separated it into three generations; Globalization 1.0 1492-1800 -muscle, horsepower, focus was on countries Globalization 2.01800-2000 -multinational companies (headquarters in one, operated in others), telephone, WWW, comps -focus was on companies Globalization 3.0present -driven be Friedmans 10 flatteners; global, web-based platform -focus was on groups and individuals Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, IT Support Business Pressures (3 types) Market Pressure Global Economy and Strong Competition- NAFTA, introduction of euro, rise of India and China -cost of labour is low in developing countries, developed countries offer greater benefits -many industries moved operations to countries with low labour costs; IT makes these moves easier Need for Real Time Operations- immediate processing of info; in store or online, credit card payments -orgs must have adequate info systems to provide real time processing Changing Nature of the Workforce- greater participation from women, single parents, visible minorities, disabled, those working from home; IT eases the integration of these workers Powerful Customers- their sophistication and expectations increase -they can find detailed info, can compare prices online -firms will try to know as much about their customers (customer intimacy), which further increases the customer relationship management (CRM) Technology Pressures Technological Innovation and Obsolescence- new and improved techs bring substitutes for products, alternative service options, and greater quality Information Overload- info is found on the Internet; flood of info to managers -IT eases this through search engines, data mining to help managers access the data Societal/Political/Legal Pressures Social Responsibility- state of the physical environment to company, indiv philanthropy -known as organizational social responsibility/individual social responsibility Digital divide- gap b/n those who had access to info/communications tech and those who dont Compliance with Government Regulations and Deregulation- regulations regarding health, safety, environmental control, employment equity -businesses see regulations as constraints on their activities; deregulation can intensify competition -the enforced laws affect business operations, income taxes, payroll taxes -Canada have passed laws to govern business activities; Budge Measures Act to improve investor confidence; PIPEDA -orgs rely on IT support to provide the needed controls and info compliance Ethical Issues- if handled poorly, an orgs image can be damaged -the use of IT raises many ethical issues (monitoring e-mails, customers privacy invaded) -IT can also be used t improve the methods of processing Protection Against Fraud of Terrorist Attacks- computer systems can be used to create fake transactions -orgs need to protect their info to reduce identity theft -since 9/11, increased pressure to protect businesses -IT helps through security systems; finding patterns of behaviour to suggest terrorism Organizational Responses Strategic Systems -enables orgs to increase market share, better negotiate with suppliers, to prevent competitors from entering their markets -requires a close alignment b/n business and IT Customer Focus -IT tools have been used to enhance customer service -remembering you by name, suggesting recommendations, providing useful info to make decisions Make-to-Order and Mass Customization Make-to-order- customized products and serviced -business problem is manufacturing efficiently and at a low cost; so there was a switch from mass production to mass customization Mass customization- producing a large quantity of items but customized at the same time E-business and E-commerce -doing business electronically -to plan for the most effective responses, companies formulate strategies -these strategies rely on IT (especially strategic information systems) Why are Information Systems Important to Me? -can help register for classes, pay bills, conduct banking, research papers -the switch from a wire line telephone to a smart phone -blog, YouTube, CDs, DVDs -it offers career opportunities IT is used by all Departments Finance & Accounting forecast revenues, business activity, uses of funds, performing audits Sales & Marketing product analysis (developing new goods), site analysis (best location), promotion analysis (finding best ad channels), price analysis (setting product prices) Marketing managers managing r/ns with their customers Manufacturing process customer orders, production schedules, control inventory levels -they use comp-assisted design (CAD) and comp-assisted manufacturing (CAM) to manufacture prods HR recruiting process, analyze and screen job applicants
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