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Midterm Review

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 3660
Allan Greenbaum

INTRO Ethics is the study of morality. Morality is the criteria that someone has about what is right or wrong. Morality consists of norms. - Descriptive ethics: What do people think is right and wrong (factual) - Normative ethics: what ought to be right and wrong according to people (conceptual) - Business ethics: moral standards as they apply to business - Perspectives o Ethics as a business constraint o Ethics as a business advantage o Ethics as underpinning of business - Choices o Individual o Enlightened self-interest  best for society ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS Descriptive: what is the case Normative: what ought to be the case Levels of Ethical Analysis - Societal - Industry - Organizational - Individual Moral Responsibility - An individual is morally responsible for o Wrongful acts which they performed (or wrongly omitted) and for the injurious effects they brought about (or failed to prevent) when done knowingly and freely - Excused by: o Ignorance o Inability - Mitigated by: o Uncertainty o Difficulty o Degree of involvement o Non-seriousness - Complicating Factors o Whose authority?  Milgram (Shock) Experiments o Others responsibility?  Kitty Genovese murder – someone else will do it - Is a corporation a moral agent? o Yes  Corporations are artificial people  Can act and form objectives  Held morally accountable o No  Corporations are made of people  Only humans can be morally blamed  Corporations are machines o Liabilities are minimal o CSR = moral responsibility of managers on behalf of the firm  A firm’s responsibilities to whom? Stakeholders  Anyone who can affect or is affected by the company o Primary:  Owners  Managers  Employees  Customers  Suppliers  Community o Secondary:  Government  Competitors  Media  Special interest groups  Future generations  Environment - Responsibilities/Duties o Positive duties: to do good o Negative duties: to not harm o Contractual duties: could be positive/negative from explicit/implicit agreement o Perfect duties: to respect the rights of others  Ex. To not murder Person A because they have a right not to be murdered o Imperfect duties: ex. No particular charity has a right to Person A’s money o Voluntary CSR  Perfect moral duties  Imperfect duties Judging and Deciding Responsibilities - Moral values o Instrumental value  X is valuable for Y  As a means, not an end o Intrinsic value  X valued for its own sake  Ex. I wanna be happy for myself o Inherent value  Being valuable regardless of being valued by something else - Moral thinking o Intuitive/Prima Facie  Internalized social moral norms  conscience  Maxims  rules of thumb  Problems:  May conflict with each other  May reflect unjustified prejudices o Critical/Theoretical  Abstract theories derived from reasoning  Seeks coherence, justified norms, moral progress  Problems: can be used to rationalize wrong actions, self-deception - Moral Reasoning Process o Common, universal values  Trustworthiness  Responsibility  Caring  Citizenship o Haidt’s common values  Care  Fairness  Loyalty  Respect for authority  Purity Ethical Theories - Utilitarianism o Process:  ID alternatives  Determine costs and benefits for each stakeholder  Select alternatives which gives greatest good o Criticisms  Measurement: how to measure value of life, health  How do you predict the future?  Unable to deal with rights and justice o Act Utilitarianism  Choose the action that will result in the greatest good o Rule Utilitarianism  Choose the rule that will result in the greatest good  Following rule  intuitive/prima facie moral thinking, “judging”  Choosing rule  critical/theoretical moral thinking, “legislating” - Kantianism o Must act based on moral duty o Categorial imperative  Universalizability: if everyone did it, would it be self-defeating?  Reversability: put yourself in the other person’s shoes  Respect: don’t treat people as a means to an end o Problems: consequences might be ignored o Bowie’s 7 Principles  Consider interests of all stakeholders  Have stakeholders participate in determining policies  Interests of one stakeholder group don’t always take priority  If humanity of one group is on the line, cannot take utilitarian approach  Must not be universalizable (self-defeating) or lack respect (as an ends)  Establish procedures to ensure relations with stakeholders are with justice - Moral Rights o The action is right or wrong if it respects the rights of the individuals affected o Legal rights are determined by social institutions o Moral rights exist by the fact you are human o Right: an entitlement to something  If I have a right, you have a duty  Perfect duties imply rights: Don’t steal, right not to be robbed  Imperfect duties do not imply rights o Negative rights: duty on others not to interfere  Company must disclose dangers of their products to protect consumers o Positive rights: creates duty on others to provide o Applying moral rights  1. Determine moral rights each stakeholder has and duties owed  2. Determin
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