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Administrative Studies
ADMS 4495
Anna Anna

Wk8-leadership org try to use the great person theory of leadership because of the notion that leaders have the ability to control and influence the fates of their org and people and secondly the fundamental attributions error which is the tendency to over-emphasize the impact of stable personality and dispositional traits and underemphasize the impact of the situation on people‟s behaviour Denver’s Mistakes 1)Lack of observational learning (Cohen )-Failure to assess, recognize and understand the social context of the organization2)Critical misunderstandings- Did not understand team leadership, Did not have knowledge of conditions that affect teams, Did not know how to create and maintain the conditions , how to conduct diagnosis of issues, 3)Lack of attention to cues in Patel‟s email- Lack of emotional maturity- did not have the ability to step back and understand where the others are coming from,-Courage – did not take actions that took him out of social comfort zone- needed to appear in charge but did so in incorrect fashion. Recommendation: Parallel Suggestion Involvement- 1)Invite employees and team members to make suggestions about organizational procedures and processes. 2)Given opportunity to actively engage and encouraged to recommend. Important points: i)Choice of Communication Channel ii) In effective use of power- iii) Lack of alignment between words and deeds (not “bottom up”) iv) Style worked against existing climate/norms.Overuse- team member uses power to exert influence to dominate the team -Makes explicit command, More likely to make a deviant decisionpahize the impact of the situation on people‟s behaivur &Hinders group effectiveness. Abdication- member exerts no special influence over task. (dysfunctional). Managing the resource – powerful team member influences other members only in the specific domain of his or her special resources. Most effective use of power - Communicate motivation and minimize the status differences. What leadership is not- Empirical data show that there is no support for the notions that good leaders are made by teaching them about leadership trails, styles, or behaviours. Leadership is-Newer research data suggests that we need to move from looking at “who”, personality traits the leader should be and “how”, behaviours, to learning about “what” the leader does and “when” the leader does it. What team leaders do- Attend to basic conditions that foster effective team workby -Create real team work stable over time, -Compelling direction, -Structure,-Provide ample support and resources,-Provide expert coaching. Recommendations- Gather and analyse information to come up with and articulate a vision.-Create a realistic vision which incorporates the legitimate needs of the stakeholders and are translated the vision into a competitive strategy. Types of leadership-type-Aversive-representative behaviour is engaging in intimidation and dispensing reprimands. Directive- issuing instructions and commands, assigning goal. Transactional-providing personal rewards, providing material rewards, managing by exception (active), managing by exception (passive) Transformational- providing vision, expressing idealism, using inspirational communication, having high performance expectations. Empowering-encouraging independent action, encouraging opportunity thinking, encouraging team work, encouraging self-development, participative goal setting and encouraging self-reward Provide direction which replaces the need for long term planning. What a team leader does- 1)Set up-Create and design stable work team, Provide compelling vision, Set norms, standards, expectations of quality. 2)Support and resource- Information, Money, Leverage relationships, contacts3)Coach-Provide Feedback, Guidance& Training Recommendations: Create work teams that have stability over time, Provide the team with compelling direction, Fine tune the structure of the team to foster team work, Provide ample support and resources Coach the team. Timing: Move quickly and decisively when opportunities open up, Know when to approach things. Stack the Deck: Align all conditions for team effectiveness so that they pull in the same direction. Focus on structure first and then on coaching Definition of coaching-Direct interaction with a team intended to help members make coordinated and task appropriate use of their collective resources in accomplishing team work”. (Hackman) “Coaching is about building team work not about doing team work.” (Hackman)Types of coaching Educational Motivational Consultative. When there are issues in the team it is more effective for leaders to focus on team design and structure and make adjustments than to provide coaching. Hackman says don‟t change the team but look, observe and manage the,overcontrolling managers makes the team worse because it‟s a bad style of leadership as controlling behavior doesn‟t work in team environment. Instead of control, you review performance strategy and sek better ways to reach standards, effective coaching is only as good as team design. Mgt is balancing team design, team develop & the product. Team design is strentuced in a way that all 3 are balnced. How to establish authority without being controlling- identify the matters which u need info, establisg d ability to ask 4 info without being apologetic- establish boundaries of the members shred responsiblitiy 4 the task. Affirm norms of conduct that guide the work. Manage a balance- btw product, individual development and team learning amongst the team. 1)Product/ Productivity- are we producing goods , services, decisions that we are supposed to – are these outcome relevant to the end user. 2)Team learning/Development-Are members learning and developing – are they getting better at what they do, how they do it etc.3)Team development/Fulfilment – Is the work fulfilling, Are member obtaining fulfillment in their work or is there mounting frustration. This -Reduces likeliness of efforts and cost when exclusive focus on one area occurs -Members like to be more attentive and thoughtful in planning what the team will do- ( must have team members plan their work roles and responsibilities, this will prevent team members from over emphasising one area. Managing the trade off-Team leaders need to balance the trade- offs that occur between 1)Creating an acceptable product or service2)Enabling the team to grow and develop.3)Enabling individuals to develop. If you over invest in any one of these areas on of the other areas suffers and leads to the issues that could break down the teamHow to Establish Authority: Identify matters about which you need information. ( unapologetically) ii)Establish Boundaries of the members of shared responsibility for the task iii)Affirm the norms of conduct that would guide the work What leaders need to know i)Knowledge of team effectiveness conditions ii)Knowledge of how to create and maintain the conditions for team effectiveness-Diagnosis , execution of team concepts. Iii) Emotional Maturity-Deal with anxiety iv)Courage -Take actions that make take them out of their social comfort zone Carver is an autocratic leader, since he is an appointed leader. HE should go for coaching; coaching is about building team work, not about doing the team‟s work. Leadership is not the same as management, people want to be led. Leadership is the ability to influence people to achieve the goals of a team. Transformational leadership and Transactional leadership depend on the leader‟s power to reinforce subordinate for their successful completion of the task. POWER is the capacity to influence people DECISION STYLE – autocratic, inquiry, consultative approach, consensus building, delegation. Task must be delegated in the CASE. Parallel suggestion involvement is to invite employees and team members to make suggestions about organizational procedures and process. Thus employees are given opportunities and are actively encouraged to recommend tactics. For increasing sales…..etc. EVEN THE ORGANZATION NEEDS TO BE INVOLVED for changing the process and procedures. Hackman ch7:Leadership: Tendency to assign the leader credit or blame for success or failure of the team outcomes – Leader attribution error. There is no one leadership style that works at all time. Leadership style is not fixed, and it keeps changing according to the situation. What EFFECTIVE LEADER DO? Create real work team that will have stability over time, provide team with compelling direction, fine-tune the structure of the team so that it fosters teamwork, tweak the organizational structure and system to give support and resources for the team, provide expert coaching and take full advantage of the favourable situation. GOOD COACHING – build the level of effort that members apply to the work, increase task appropriateness of their performance strategies and by helping people to use their pool of knowledge and skill. NORMS OF CONDUCT shld be established. Wen encountering uncoachable team – restructure the team so that we can have meaningful level of control/ power. And if not possible shld the Team exist or not? In this case, shld the team exist or just carver can do all the work? Shld the team be broken down into smaller groups, and they should work together and then they should discus all the ideas together in a meeting? Wrong ways lead team: 1) lies /mislead=destroyed credibility+mistrust.2) enact/copy leadership style not one‟s own.3) relentlessly enact preferred leadership style despite unfavourable results long term.4) under/over control leads to uncertainty & team incapacitated (inability to self-correct) natural leaders aware of their styles in how to exploit strength & circumvent weakness. Qualities of effective leader: 1) know some things-knowledge of conditions that foster effectiveness & skills to create them. 2)know how to do some things-how to create & maintain conditions: diagnostic[extract from performance situation & determine how to intervene],execution[ability to execute action narrow gap between reality and what could be] has-envisioning,inventive,negotiation,decision-making,teaching,interpersonal,implementation skills. 3)emotional maturity-ability to deal with anxiety & inhibit impulse act until time is right.4) courage-ability leaders take to move team from what team feels comfortable to what is acceptable based on the data given rather than team consensus. Leadership is not made by: style, behaviour, personality. Wk9-creativity Creativity is latent, it is under the surface and the proper design can unleash it. There is no empirical support for the team being more creative in fact studies indicate that the opposite is true that teams are not more creative than individuals. Teams: Need to know how to generate ideas that will lead to useful products and services, Managers need to actively encourage teams members to generate ideas to solve problems, Teams need to be the able to implement ideas that will enable companies to stay ahead of the competition, If teams are expected to generate ideas to help the companies stay ahead of the competition. But research states that teams are known to be ineffective in doing this What can be done?-what is creativity and how effective can it be used in an org to stimulate ideas, how do we measure creativity. Definition: What is creativity?- The production of novel or useful ideas. Its The ability to form new concepts using existing knowledge. The creative act is original and valuable Definition: What is innovation?-The realization of novel and useful ideas in the form of products or services. FINKE’S MODEL OF CREATIVITY- There are two dimensions: creativity And structural connectedness. With regards to creativity, ideas can be conservative or creative. Teams should strive to achieve creative ideas which are highly original and novel ideas as opposed to being conservative, traditional ideas. The other dimension is structural connectedness and these are ideas that work with existing products and services are high in structural connectedness; ideas that cannot work with existing products and services are low in structural connectedness. Structural connectedness distinguishes ideas that are realistic; connected to current ideas and knowledge fm ideas that are idealistic; disconnected from current knowledge which are not implementable. The most desirable ideas are those in the upper left quadrant which is called creative realism because these ideas are highly imaginative and highly connected to current structures and ideas. Conservative realism is on the upper right quadrant which represents ideas that are highly traditional and highly connected to current knowledge and practices. Creative idealism is an extension of a common idea that is unrealistic to begin with. these ideas exhibit little or no imagination and are connected to existing knowledge. Creative idealism represents highly original yet unrealistic ideas. Recommendations: Most desirable ideas are Highly original and highly realistic but organization should Encourage teams to members to generate ideas in all quadrants. Generation of a high volume of ideas is most important aspect of creativity and leads to the development of creative solutions and innovation. Suggestion of silly or ridiculous ideas, creative idealism, helps to pave the way towards innovative ideas. Managers active role should be to encourage team members to generate that are useful to solve problems and teams need would be able to implement those ideas. Measuring creativity-Three Indices that measure creativity 1)Fluency-Measure of quantity of ideas generated 2)Flexibility-Measure of categories of ideas generated 3) Originality-Measure of the novelty of ideas. If less than 5% of the population. For example: Fluency- how many ideas did you generate in the braining storming session. Brain storming sessions. Not necessarily true that brain storming is the number one way for teams to be creative. What are the number of categories you came up with. Flexibility drives creativity because the- The higher the number of categories of idea that are generated the more likely that you will come up with a creative, original realistic idea. There is a strong relationship between the quantity, of ideas and with the ability to generate creative and realistic ideas. The higher the diversity of ideas that one comes up with leads to the development of originality and creative realistic ideas. Most companies do not reward diversity of thought their Focus is on quality. Thinking patterns : 1) Convergent thinking- Thinking that proceeds towards a single answer. Groups excel at this. Good at judging ideas 2) Divergent thinking: Thinking that moves outward from a central point. Conditions for success and is best done alone. Teams less proficient due to grp think, etc Does not require a single correct answer rather it moves outward from the problem in many directions and involve thinking without boundaries. Once a team generate ideas in a divergent manner, eventually they need to select an idea to develop and so convergent thinking is necessary at this point as a team or person evaluates various ideas presented to measure their feasibility, practicality and overall merit. Creativity requires process- to ensure that the right ideas are selected for implementation? 1Stimulate Divergent Thinking ( use individuals): Select diversity of individuals, Stimulate by using open ended questions and impossibilities statements, Generate hundreds of idea, Record all idea. 2. Establish goals and criteria for success- I.e.. Great design, attraction to customer, fulfilment of a need 3. Introduce Convergent Thinking (use groups): Select group of diverse members and create a team. Have team judge and critique ideas based on criteria and goal of the project. Brainstorming is statistically proven to be insignificant in producing ideas in comparison to using individual. Other methods are better for groups for instance the use of debates stimulates more ideas. Fallacy- meaning, a mistaken belief, esp. one based on unsound argument as groups use this technique often poorly and they think it works well. This means that they are not as creative as they think they are and Individual are better and more creative than groups Enhancing team creativity-best practices for improvinf creative team work Cognitive-Goal instructions Social-Organizational suggestions Structural-Environmental suggestions  Set high goals  Trained facilitators  Diversify the team  Explicit set of rules  Brainwriting  Membership change and rotation  Paulus‟ new rules  Brief breaks  Organizational networking  Positive mood  Nominal group technique  Build a playground  Increase individual accountability  Delphi technique  Analogical reasoning  Stepladder technique Lt 10- team conflict Three Types of Conflict Varring rates of participation- task conflict . it is task conflict about the task needed to perform. Task conflict leads to relationship conflict, and teams can get disruptive. Statistics on Conflict and Team Effectiveness- Negative Correlation between team performance and relationship and task conflict. Meta -Analysis show that Worst Impact : Relationship Conflict Team Performance & Task Conflict Team Performance Personal vs principal conflict: conflict that was good focueses on issues conflict that was bad focused on blame How people react to conflict: Five Courses of actions when they find themselves involved in conflict-conflict mgt style- This model shows the extent to which people are concerned with themselves and the extent to which they are concerned with others.1) competition- through intimidation. This course of action is high on the scale of concern for one self and its characterized by self-interest and self-preservation and is low on the scale of concern for others through empathy. This takes a power based approach 2) Avoidance- stalemate: is both low on concern for one‟s self and concern for others. 3) Compromise- has a balance on the scale between concern for one self and for others. 4)Collaboration-This type of course takes on an interest approach. This has a high scale of both interests for one self and interest for others. This is a win- win situation as both party win and feel happy with the situation. 5) Accommodation – both low for concern for one‟s self and for others through capitulation. Solution of these is the Intervention Model -Four Types of Interventions- clarify what
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