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Exam Sheet.docx

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Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 4495
Anna Anna

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Ch11: Leaders are necessary for effective team work. They need to be there to shape goals, coordinate effort, and motivate members. Carver should be a better leader. Effects to change the leader may often result in negative supervisor reactions, including resistance to change, role conflict, unwillingness to relinquish power, fear of appearing incompetent and fear of job termination. These responses may cause the leaders to engage in actions that thwart, rather than facilitate team effectiveness. Carver is an autocratic leader, since he is an appointed leader. HE should go for coaching; coaching is about building team work, not about doing the team’s work. Leadership is not the same as management, people want to be led. Leadership is the ability to influence people to achieve the goals of a team. Transformational leadership and Transactional leadership depend on the leader’s power to reinforce subordinate for their successful completion of the task. POWER is the capacity to influence people. Using power feels good, people are attracted to power, people who have power often have egocentrically biased view of themselves, believing themselves to be more fair, generous and trustworthy. Not every decision requires the input of their entire team. It is simply not practical to consult the team on every organizational issue, but where to draw the line is unclear. Legitimate power (based on person’s holding of a formal position, other person complies because of belief in legitimacy of power holder). Reward power, coercive power (ability to punish other person). Expert power (personal expertise in a certain area). Referent power (person’s attractiveness to others). Concern the quality of the decision to be made. The acceptance needed for the decisions. The length of time required to make the decision and the amount of growth or development of the team. DECISION STYLE – autocratic, inquiry, consultative approach, consensus building, delegation. Task must be delegated in the CASE. Parallel suggestion involvement is to invite employees and team members to make suggestions about organizational procedures and process. Thus employees are given opportunities and are actively encouraged to recommend tactics. For increasing sales…..etc. EVEN THE ORGANZATION NEEDS TO BE INVOLVED for changing the process and procedures. Hackman 7: Leadership: Tendency to assign the leader credit or blame for success or failure of the team outcomes – Leader attribution error. There is no one leadership style that works at all time. Leadership style is not fixed, and it keeps changing according to the situation. What EFFECTIVE LEADER DO? Create real work team that will have stability over time, provide team with compelling direction, fine-tune the structure of the team so that it fosters teamwork, tweak the organizational structure and system to give support and resources for the team, provide expert coaching and take full advantage of the favourable situation. GOOD COACHING – build the level of effort that members apply to the work, increase task appropriateness of their performance strategies and by helping people to use their pool of knowledge and skill. NORMS OF CONDUCT shld be established. Wen encountering uncoachable team – restructure the team so that we can have meaningful level of control/ power. And if not possible shld the Team exist or not? In this case, shld the team exist or just carver can do all the work? Shld the team be broken down into smaller groups, and they should work together and then they should discus all the ideas together in a meeting? Wrong ways lead team: 1) lies /mislead=destroyed credibility+mistrust.2) enact/copy leadership style not one’s own.3) relentlessly enact preferred leadership style despite unfavourable results long term.4) under/over control leads to uncertainty & team incapacitated (inability to self-correct) natural leaders aware of their styles in how to exploit strength & circumvent weakness. Qualities of effective leader: 1) know some things-knowledge of conditions that foster effectiveness & skills to create them. 2)know how to do some things-how to create & maintain conditions: diagnostic[extract from performance situation & determine how to intervene],execution[ability to execute action narrow gap between reality and what could be] has-envisioning,inventive,negotiation,decision- making,teaching,interpersonal,implementation skills. 3)emotional maturity-ability to deal with anxiety & inhibit impulse act until time is right.4) courage-ability leaders take to move team from what team feels comfortable to what is acceptable based on the data given rather than team consensus. Leadership is not made by: style, behaviour, personality. Ch9 - Creativity – Creative realism – ideas are highly imaginative and highly connected to current structures and ideas. In this case – Product development is highly creative department, and all ideas must be heard before selecting one. Carver does not do this; he hears the idea and creates his own version of it, giving no accountability to the people who have suggested the idea. This creates lack of motivation for people to come up with ideas and to present them. He should encourage his employees to give creative realism ideas, which is realistic and creative. He should also measure creativity, by 3 indices. Fluency (how many ideas a person generates), Flexibility (how many types of ideas a person generates), Originality. He needs to follow certain rule to measure creativity. Carver needs to involve both convergent and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is by individuals...and convergent is by teams, as they can criticize and discuss and evaluate ideas. People working independently excel at divergent thinking, because there are no cognitive or social pressures. Teams are better at judging quality of ideas. Creativity is correlated with intelligence, motivation, ambition, persistence, commitment, determination, education and success in general. Creative people are passionate about specific things. GROUP MEMBERS should be expressiveness, non-evaluative, quantity of ideas, and building up on ideas from group members. Cognitive-Goal instructions Social-Organizational suggestions Structural-Environmental suggestions Individual accountability and motivation is needed Set high goals Trained facilitators  Diversify the team to build a productive team. Electronic  Explicit set of rules  Brainwriting  Membership change and rotation Brainstorming – are  Paulus’ new rules  Brief breaks  Organizational networking  Positive mood  Nominal group technique  Build a playground anonymous and there is  Increase individual  Delphi technique loss of power, as only one person can type and accountability  Stepladder technique the rest listens and stuff.  Analogical reasoning Osborn rule for brainstorming: 1) rule outcriticism [non evaluate] 2) free-wheelingwelcomed 3) quantitydesired 4) combine & improve idea encourage [building] Brainstorming rules: 1) don’t criticize, 2) build on idea of others 3) have 1 conversation at a time 4) stay focus on topic 5) encourage wild ideas. Cognitive stimulation: ideas generated by 1 person in team could stimulate ideas in other people in synergistic fashion. Priming effect: members make mutual association upon hearing ideas presented by others. Threats to team creativity: social loafing, conformity, production blocking, performance matching. Downward norm setting: people in brainstorming group match performance to least productive members (likely from lack of incentive: external or internal for high perform team) with high performers feel like deviants unless they are competing with another team; problems caused: fail to follow rules, slack off production, experience inhibition, participate in non-productive social rituals, set performance benchmark lower, conformity to ideas & rate of generation. Paulus new rules in brainstorming: stay focus on task, no stores & don’t explain ideas, restate problem & encourage ideas generated if no 1 is suggesting any, encourage those not talking to contribute. People usually have knowledge to solve problem, but fail to access if it come from different context. Requirement on team creativity: teams need to know how to generate ideas lead to useful products & service, managers actively encourage idea generation for problem solving, teams need to be able to implement ideas enable companies stay ahead competition, encourage ideas generate from all quadrants, generate high volume of ideas important aspect & lead to development of creative solutions & innovation, suggest silly/ridiculous ideas, creative idealism helps pave way to innovative ideas. Hargadon & Sutton knowledge brokering cycle: 1) capture good ideas 2) keep ideas alive 3) imagine new use for old ideas 4) put promising concept to test. Nominal group technique: anonymous (write down idea & redistribute with 1 person read aloud after picking) & rotating. Inert knowledge problem: frustration of seeing connection only after it is pointed out/ability to take advantage of prior experience highly limited. Ch 2 Thompson: Performance and productivity – Team context – includes organizational setting within which the team does its work, the design of the team in terms of its internal functioning and the culture of the team. ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL TEAM PERFORMANCE: 1) bring adequate knowledge and skill to bear on the task. 2) Exert sufficient motivation and effort to accomplish the task at an acceptable level of performance. 3) Coordinate their activities and communication. Reward team members for performance. Strengthen team cohesion. Increase personal responsibility. Provide team performance reviews and feedback. Maintain “right” staffing level. Knowledge, skill & ability to perform task: 1) conflict resolution 2) collaborative problem solving 3) communication 4) goal setting & performance management 5) planning & task coordination; team member skills, learning curves & expertise. Choking under pr
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