A critical thinker has the following characteristics: self-aware: Trouble with experts: lots of nose (uncertainty) in the business world, experts step in to fill the void, they are often wrong, they disagree. Need to develop procedure to assess truth or validity of different ideas. School of administrative studies (sas: administrative = management, primary focus on business, but also, government (public admin) not-for-profit, disasters and emergencies, any organization, sas is effectively a business school (b-school) The manager = the person in charge of the organization or one of its subunits . According to henri foyal (1916) => the rational view: managers, plan, organize, coordinate, control. According to henry mintzberg: formal authority and status interpersonal roles informal roles decisional roles. Early years: fist collegiate b-schools established around turn of century (1900s, wharton, u of pennsylvania, est 1881, u of chicago graduate school of business (now the booth school of business, harvard business school, est.