ADMS 3430 Study Guide - Final Guide: Talent Management System, Job Analysis, Performance Appraisal

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Chapter 4: Job analysis
To attain the strategic and operational goals, it’s necessary to develop short-run
production and operational budgets, as well as to specify the division of labour;
commonly referred to as partitioning of the work process into manageable units called
Jobs can be defined as a grouping of related duties, tasks, and behaviours
performed by one or more individuals, namely jobholders.
Each job will have one or more positions- in other words the number of individuals
who are performing the duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a specific job.
Job analysis: the analysis of subdivided work in the organization, both at the level of the
individual job and for the entire flow of the production process.
Knowledge of the nature of the organizations work process, the job analysis process,
working conditions, employee qualifications, and the educational training and skills
requirement are essential components in the formulation of the successful HR planning
Job analysis:
1. Job analysis can be defined as an examination of the jobs in an organization with a view
to documenting the task, duties, and responsibilities of a hob and the knowledge, silks
and abilities, and other attributes required for the successful performance of those jobs.
2. The written outcomes of this process are referred to a job description and a job
3. Job descriptions: emphasis on the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job.
4. Job specification: are the competencies or the KSA’S the job holder must possess to be
a successful performer in a specific job ( job specification)
KNOWLEDGE: body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that allows an
individual to perform a task successfully
SKILLS: individuals level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. Level of
competency is typically expressed in numerical terms.
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ABILTIES: ability is more general, enduring a trait or capability an individual possesses at the
time when he or she first begins to perform a task.
Other attributes: include work experience.
Before we can meaningfully advertise jobs and recruit individuals to fill job vacancies
identified by the HR planning process, to attract the desired applicants we must be able to
specify the individual competencies that we seek
The selection criteria that flow out of the job analysis process are also used in succession
planning to appraise the organizations internal candidates for transfer or promotion to
management or executive jobs.
If the performance appraisal process reveals that the individual has deficiencies that can
be rectified by training and development, specific programs or courses can be instigated
to help the individual reach the desired standards. Furthermore, compensation systems in
organizations typically use a classification process based on knowledge and skills, effort,
responsibility, and working conditions, the four compensable factors of the job that are
explicitly noted and formalized by the job analysis process.
Job analysis , therefore, is not only a critical requirement for the proper implementation
and operation of the HR planning process.
Job analysis has a long history within the HR field. Efficiency expert Fred Taylors
scientific management studies were key contributions to the evolution of contemporary
job analysis methods.
Taylors industrial engineering approach focused on reducing costs and improving
efficiency of the manufacturing worker
Fred Taylors scientific management has two main aspects: 1) the methods
employed, and 2) the time measurement for task completion.
First aspect is concerned with how the job incumbent performs the job- that is what the
minimum requirements for success in the job. These requirements include, a) individuals’
knowledge of production techniques and process (raw material, and other inputs, machinery
tools.) cognitive abilities
Second aspect common to all job analysis is time measurement or the cycle and production
time required to produce good or service to the performance standards of the organization.
This time standard is completely dependent on the first aspect, which is concerned with
the methods employed.
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The information came from job analysis is absolutely vital in conducting effective
HR planning. First, the analysis of jobs and work processes ensures that job
descriptions and specifications accurate and reliable.
HR programs being properly aligned to attracting and retaining high quality
individuals to meet the needs of today and for the future. Second changes in
technological processes lead to certain jobs, programs, and processes becoming
redundant over time, while new jobs and work acitvites develop.
Job analysis allows HR programmers to suggest the most effective and efficient
ways to a) organize work, b) differentiate core activities from those that can be
outsourced and or curtailed. C) the structure the organizations given key
strategic businesses goals.
All in all job analysis is important to ensure the best fit between work requirements,
and the requisite complementary of individual and organizational needs.
Problems associated with job analysis:
Some of the challenges associated with job analysis:
1. Job analysis that is neither updated nor reviewed:
Job analyses must be reviewed on a regular basis by incumbents, supervisors, HR
staff, and so on to ensure that the written job requirements reflect the reality of
contemporary job performance.
Changes in technology in materials, and processes may affect how work should be
efficiently organized into jobs
Changes must be incorporated to create job descriptions and specifications that
accurately reflect how work is being organized into jobs and the corresponding set of
KSA`S required to the job incumbent
Obsolete job descriptions not only fail to provide job incumbents with
meaningful guidance as to their required duties and tasks.
2. Job descriptions or specification that is too vague:
Without this specific information, experience of time spent on the job has little
relevance for selection.
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