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ANTH 1120
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AFRICAM 112B midterm study guide: Ecuador/Sudan comparison, Slavery examination Ecuador/Sudan comparison: history, law, census SUDAN: - Colonial interests/global, national actors had absolute power to define terms, displayed b/c the people would not have defined history/census/law that way (people speakArabic, use a broader narrative of self to identify themselves)  did not work out in their favor - Hometic Hypothesis: idea that nothing good comes out ofAfrica, anything that is worthy comes from Mid-Eastern peninsula  lends itself to particular narrative ofAfrica - Chapter 5, pages 146-152 (history/census/law) History / control over the past - Sudan had naturally moved from local, tribal authority to macroauthority (economic, centralized organization) with Islam, use ofArabic as a language - GB had to challenge the existing narrative (Arabic, Muslim, French occupation of parts of Africa) upon arrival b/c it challenged their authority - Eliminated French threat by holding the Conference of 1885 in Berlin, where European powers claimed parts ofAfrica - Media perpetuated GB idea that there was genocide occurring in Darfur with Arabs trying to killAfricans o Posited as a moral argument o Narrative of hegemony: ideas/construction of someone’s perception being posited as reality - In reality, civil war was initiated over access to land (which was triggered by the drought)  those who didn’t have access had rights, got the state to intervene for them, those with access felt shafted - International influences: War on Terror (conflating Islam into Islamic fundamentalism), Cold War (started in Chad’s civil war with Libya (unifyAfricanism,Arabism, Islam) vs. US (wanted to break them up to force their own interests upon them)  lots of proxy wars fought in Sudan and Chad), escalated b/c of Chad, conflicts over capitalism/communism, uranium and oil in Chad/Sudan, armed the people - State influences: No/So conflict Arabs mobilizing a certain way in Chad’s civil war influenced the Janjaweed, So had more resources (more stable environment, land is better), conflict over tribalism, resources - Regional influences: way land was divided by on the basis of tribe during colonialism, colonialism became a factor b/c of return to tribalism Census (legal claims: defines fundamental rights in fundamental ways by determining who belongs where  states decide on a narrative to follow) / control over the present - GB (colonial power) intruded, started redefining everyone asArab/black, settler/indigenous (created new distinctions that didn’t used to exist), created new system of authority o Blacks had all the rights, whileArabs should have none o Differentiation between theArab groups, conflicts with the wayArabs are perceived as a larger conflated group  nomadic (camel, cattle herders), pastoral, cultivators o In reality, more blurry than that: Sudan has both Arab/black and Muslim/Christian divide, but in Darfur, bothArab/blacks are Muslim o People started to believe the distinctions  unstable identity, census - Arabs are cattle, camel herders from the No  nomadic, don’t care for stable, legal rights AFRICAM 112B midterm study guide: Ecuador/Sudan comparison, Slavery examination o Not a problem until they are pushed into land with settlement claims, desertification depletes the land supply  new conflict over access to land - Settlers, farmers want ownership rights - Everyone starts splitting up into groups, make differences (those w/ and w/o rights to land)  groups become defined by the census o Creates new tensions from grouping lots of different people together - Perpetuating savior/survivor, victim narrative by setting up refugee camps with access to resources: residents may be fleeing drought, poverty  claim they are victims to get in, census claims populations are fleeing terror - Saviors’justice v. survivors’justice o Creates dependency of victims on saviors  can’t help themselves (Global No needs to stop intervening and take a step back, let them solve issue themselves) o Global No always has a stake in what’s happening, will keep perpetuating the conflict (African Union and UN  prevented them from doing their job) o Survivors’justice: everyone has been victimized (current victims hurt by the perpetrators, current perpetrators hurt by being denied land by the state)  need to move on (eg South Africa) Law / control over the future - GB’s legal interpretation of the law provided locals with power  worked in GB’s interest in producing cotton on the land - Began narrative thatArabs do not belong b/c they are settlers, are oppressing the black population, who needs to be saved  legitimizes international quasi-humanitarian intervention, consistent with current understandings of foreign interests (US and oil, China’s relationship with Muslims,Arab countries) o Need to make a victim to justify intervention (innocentAfricans vs. crazyArabs, Islamic fundamentalists vs. Christians) o Am interests in Chad b/c of uranium, in So Sudan b/c of oil, interested in Darfur b/c want to undermine the Chinese (alliance with Muslims viewed as threat)  involved by proxy in Darfur o Chinese involved by proxy through Sudanese govt - War on Terror  basis of intervention, b/c of popular perception of Muslims (conflate broad diverse religion of Islam into Islam fundamentalism) - Janjaweed emerged b/c they lost access
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