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Anthropology Midterm Exam Review.docx

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ANTH 1120
David Murray

Exam Review TERMSCulture The system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shared by a people and passed on from one generation to another including the meanings that people give to things events activities and peopleEthnocentrism The tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviours of others from the perspective of ones own cultureEthnocentric Fallacy The mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of ones own cultureRelativism The attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are foundRelativistic Fallacy The idea that it is impossible to make moral judgements about the beliefs and behaviours of members of other culturesArmchair Anthropology An approach to the study of various societies that dominated anthropology in the late 1800s It involved the collection study and analysis of the writings of missionaries explorers and colonists who had sustained contact with nonWestern peoples Armchair anthropologists used these documents to make comparisons and generalisations about the ways of life of various groupsParticipant Observation An element of fieldwork that can involve participating in daily tasks and observing daily interactions among a particular groupFieldwork Anthropologists engage in longterm interactions usually a year or more with various groups of people This often involves living with people observing and contributing to daily chores and tasks participant observation and conducting interviews Most fieldwork in anthropology has historically been qualitative in natureEthnographic Method The immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of peoples they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to their existence introduced by Bronislaw MalinowskiSociocultural Anthropology An anthropological approach that retains the British focus on social anthropology at the same time as it adds the American focus on culture to produce something slightly different from either oneApplied Anthropology An anthropological branch that specializes in putting anthropological knowledge into practice outside of academiaIdentity Learned personal and social types of affiliation including gender sexuality race class nationalism and ethnicity for exampleEnculturation The process through which individuals learn an identity This can encompass parental socialization the influence of peers the mass media government or other forces
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