NOTES FOR EXAM.
The world in 1400
Europe got attached to thriving trade that was going around the world (the silk
Marco polo - enabled Europe to join trade b/w Asia and northern Africa eg. Spices,
The emergence of scientific knowledge peoples thinking
One was deemed traditional if one wanted to resist change
Fuelled by industrialization where we could make more stuff for a low price and
Mercantilism – where one works for one self.
- Refers to merchant trade – which is a person who trades commodities that
were made by someone else in order to gain a profit, which relates a lot to
the intro to industrialization.
- Considered risky- buying stuff that is common and cheap and selling it where
it rare and could sell for a higher a price. – rum molasses sugar from the
Caribbean.- plentiful but sold in England for higher price.
Manufactured goods were brought to the west coast of Africa from England in
exchange for slaves. - Columbian exchange
This was known as the triangular trade.
Triangular trade – translantic slave trade- operated by carrying slaves,
manufactured goods and cash crops between the west Africa, Caribbean’s, Americas
colonies and the European colonial powers through the northern colonies i.e. the
New England and British. The African slaves were a fundamental cash crop and
exported to New England and manufactured goods imported to the Africa and
Caribbean and America colonies.
Trading countries became interested in the new world -France, Netherlands,
England- Competitive colonizing- other colonies competed with Spanish and Portuguese for
colonies = economic system- (mercantilism)
The centre of shifts
- Observe the different maps
- Europeans began to define themselves
- Europeans came into a new position of dominance.
- Europeans changed their self perception
Modernization theory – the idea that in order for a country to see development, it
needs to leave behind cultures and traditions and follow those of the modern world;
First world. Cultures and traditions are what are holding back development.
- Modernization theory looks at the evolutionary transition of development through
societies. It takes a look at different social variables in underdeveloped countries to
define modernization. It views traditions as an obstacle in economic development
Dependency theory- when an underdeveloped country is dependent on the
resources of a developed country through multinational corporations, cheap labor.
The idea is that resources flow from the periphery states to the core states –
meaning underdeveloped and developed.
Colonialism left a lot of countries dependent on core countries for economic
Industrial revolution- began in the northern England, Britain
Mass production, mass movement of English people into mass production.
Merchants – machines + important resources- making products faster
People with resources (owners of their own labor)
First wave colonialism 1400