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Anthro final review.docx

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York University
ANTH 2120
Marc Lafleur

1. Monster a. This refers to the image of terrorists as they are viewed as sexual monsters. This sheds light on the idea that the terrorist is a figure of perversity or failed heterosexuality. Failed heterosexuals can only be created in degraded ways. The terrorist is a failed heterosexual while the western man is successfully heterosexual. 2. Commodity racism a. Commodity racism targets an audience by using the human body to sell a product. The ideology of race was a way to legitimize slavery and imperialism. Advertisements were able to exploit ‘the others’ or the primitive peoples as a vehicle to sell products. The primitive were illiterate, dependent upon the natural world rather than the masters of it, and lacking in complex social institution and mechanical technology. Whereas the civilized were highly literate, Christian, developed technology, controlled nature, and brought the blessing of civilization to the heathen and to the primitive. It has become clear that the commodity racism has the intended audience buying the dominant ideology along with the commodity. 3. Abu Ghraib a. This concept refers to the pictures that were taken in Iraq prisons of Muslims and they were graphic pictures. They were put into various positions to essentially humiliate them and had to perform acts that they usually wouldn’t perform. The set of images came to life and when circulated they reinforce discrimination and stereotypes. The torturers seemed to be enjoying the process as in each photo they are seen smiling, illustrating a sense of enjoyment and pride in humiliating them. The Body was a spectacle as it essentially reinforces their own superiority and the prisoners were seen as nothing more than objects for domination. The images also reinforce stereotypes such as primitive, dumb, and closer to nature. Negative differentiation is seen as they are defined by what they are not through the pictures. With these photos masculine qualities were produced and theArab males illustrated female characteristics as they were put in homosexual positions, thus were illustrated as weaker and inferior. TheAmericans were superior but it was rather ironic as they set them in these positions. Looking is illustrated as the prisoners were blindfolded thus preventing confrontation with the soldiers and a sense of power is conveyed. 4. Cultural anesthesia a. We become desensitized to the world around us and violence as we are overexposed to violence. Thus when we see violence we do not feel anything as we see it often. We also don’t question norms we just obey them. this concept illustrates social actors reproduce the capitalist system, thus the actions become natural. The more natural they become is the less it is thought about. This also refers to the melodramatic actions in soap operas that we are exposed to. We are constantly exposed to excessively dramatic situations, thus when we are exposed to something that should inflict emotions we do not feel anything. b. With this notion it becomes harder to feel sympathy because of melodrama 5. Rodney King a. Rodney King’s beating was televised originally visualized outside the prescribed circuits of fact production; this black body broke through the nets of anesthesia. Its shock effect had long-standing racial scars. The media at the time succeeded in stopping the post-Vietnam violence of the state, but the images of King's beating showed the state making pain. People were able to sympathize with the beating of Rodney King, and as opposed to not feeling anything they felt something essentially defying cultural anesthesia. The spectacle of state-manufactured trauma interdicted the visual myth of sanitary violence. King's beating was the skeletal X-ray image flashed upon the technologized surface of state rationality. Desert Storm and the beating of Rodney King evolved into two irreconcilable national narrative 6. Enola Gay a. The Enola Gay is Super fortress bomber, named for Enola Gay Tibbets. On 6 August 1945, during the final stages of World War II, it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb. The bomb was targeted at the city of Hiroshima, Japan, and caused unprecedented destruction. Enola Gay participated in the second atomic attack as the weather reconnaissance aircraft for the primary target of Kokura. Clouds and drifting smoke resulted in Nagasaki being bombed instead. After the war, the Enola Gay returned to the United States, where it was operated from RoswellArmyAir Field, New Mexico before being disassembled and transported to the Smithsonian's storage facility at Suitland, Maryland, in 1961. 7. Binary Oppositions a. Binary oppositions refers to a pair of related terms that contradict each other, or are opposite in meaning. Binary oppositions originated with Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the Lutz and Collins article Binary oppositions essentially are negative stereotypes that oppose each other, thereby reinforcing discrimination and prohibiting advancement. These negative stereotypes are based upon a few fallacious assumptions, and have a negative connotation to it. Examples of binary oppositions are that “black people are lazy, but yet they are much more suited for hard labour.” This example illustrates the contradiction in stereotypes and how they have a double sided nature. This concept conveys how public stereotypes are considered legit and are socially accepted. These binary oppositions also demonstrate power structures in society and how western culture post- colonization favors “civilized white men”, 8. Carte de visite a. was a type of small photograph which was patented in Paris, France by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri in 1854, although first used by Louis Dodero. The carte de visite photograph proved to be a very popular item during the American Civil War. Soldiers, friends and family members would have a means of inexpensively obtaining photographs and sending them to loved ones in small envelopes. They were essentially post cards 9. Psychoanalysis • besides the inherited constitution of personality, a person's development is determined by events in early childhood; • human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives; • irrational drives are unconscious; • attempts to bring these drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms; • conflicts between conscious and unconscious, or repressed, material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.; • The liberation from the effects of the unconscious material is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention). 10. Dismantling a. In Elaine Scarry’s article dismantling is her solution to infantilization and being over exposed to war. Infantilization refers to being treated as a young child which essentially refers to the state treating citizens as if they are children with certain information. Dismantling entails looking at everything or images with a critical eye. It is deconstructing social representations and this is her best response to infantilization. The downside to dismantling is that it leads to skepticism (not believing in anything).Also dismantling doesn’t always lead to anything good, and if we’re skeptical we will be critical or dismantling itself. 11. Kayapo a. Kayapo use video both as a means of preserving their own cultural heritage for future generations which is the conservative methodAND as a way of making (political) interventions with national society [ASSERTIVE] 12. Negative differentiation a. Negative differentiation is a theme from Mirzoeff’s work and it refers to the idea that we are defined by what we are not. Essentially what we are not is lesser and inferior than what we are, for example black and white people; white is better as black is inferior. Due to this masculine qualities are produced. In class we examined images of white military men andArab males. TheArab males were put in various positions to humiliate them and display theAmerican power. The white men were superior which was ironic as theAmericans set them in these positions. Once these photos circulate it reinforces the discrimination and stereotypes. It introduces the aspect of deviancy as deviant bodies differ from the norm, thus they need to be fixed as abnormal bodies are to be normal. 13. Assertive vs. conservative a. Kayapo use video both as a means of preserving their own cultural heritage for future generations which is the conservative methodAND as a way of making (political) interventions with national society which is the assertive method. The conservative method is done to conserve representations; this method does not change it. The example of this is if black people are photographed doing toilsome labour they are consistently photographed doing this to maintain the form representation.Assertive seeks to change the representation in society thus not being known for their essentialized characteristics. 14. The mug shot a. 15. Terrorist/freedom fighter a. Aterrorist can be defined as an individual or a group that uses rigorous forms of violence (i.e. bombs or weapons of mass destruction) to coerce for political purposes or with a specific agenda in mind. The concept of the terrorist has developed over time but previously it was incorporated stereotypical attributes that targeted a specific group of people. These characteristics are Muslim, Bearded, and Middle Eastern. Historically the term terrorist was used for colonial governments and applied to those who fought decolonization. This introduces the notion of the freedom fighter which is another term for terrorist but doesn’t carry a negative connotation. People such as Mandela and Gandhi were freedom fighters. Terrorists are essentially portrayed as evil individuals who are radical and willing to die for a cause. 16. Gender and dualism a. Dualism refers to the different entities of the mind and body. Masculinities enforce feminisms of the male body illustrating that there’s superior binary’s of the male body while the female parts are seen as weaker to the male body. Gender is a social construction or ideology that is accompanied by its own contradiction that gender is natural. Gender representations are also not free from other criticisms such as race, class, and poverty. Some dualisms discussed include mind/body, man/woman, good/evil, and civilization/barbarity. With dualisms the weaker traits are associated with females as they are perceived to be weaker specimens. For example obesity is associated with females and men who are obese are weak and subject to criticism and the gaze. Males essentially feel they need to intervene because females are out of control and are a threat that men have created. The body is also seen as separate from the true self who exists in the mind and soul. Thus female bodies need to be controlled and civilized as they have a lack of control, and they are instinct based they do not think rationally. 17. Authorization 18. West Memphis Three a. The West Memphis Three speaks of the inaccuracy and oversight of prosecutors in the case, conclusively leading to destroyed public personas and deaths of innocent individuals as a result of an unjustified decision. It addresses how three suspects were wrongfully convicted of the murder of an eight year old child. This illustrates that due to an error in the legal system and inaccurate evidence, these suspected individuals faced public scrutiny and punishment. These boys were discriminated based upon their looks, as the way they dressed was stereotyped and associated with cult-like behaviour. They wore black nail polish,Aerosmith t- shirts, and listened to heavy medal. Thus they were stereotyped and essentialized. Part 2 1. *Please discuss the difference between regime of representation and means/technology of representation making special reference to photography. In this discussion, please make reference to the ways in which photography has been put to use in the service of creating categories of delinquency. • Regime: the set of knowledge/power conditions that give representations their meaning and make them understandable to us, often by attaching to them truth and affects reality i. These regimes of representation don’t seem to depend on structures that make them an invalidation • Means: the material means of actually producing and circulating representations; the press, the camera, film, the computer, the internet etc. i. These means of technology produce photos and also allow it to be viewed by others thus solidifying their depiction in society ii. Pictures are circulated in the public sphere • In relation to photography the regimes and means of representation illustrate how vision is privileged above other senses, therefore it is assumed to be closer to the truth i. With respect to photographs, these images become representations of the truth. When we see these pictures our perception is clouded through societal representations, and these ideologies are received as truths. These photographs are reproduced through media outlets thus cementing societal beliefs and interpretations. ii. Visuality is privileged in defining criminal acts • Once photos circulate they reinforce discrimination and stereotypes • Photography has been used in creating categories of delinquency as it was attached to physical attributes of criminals to illustrate that criminals had distinct features and were born as delinquents i. For example the mug shot of criminals that stole had long noses thus on this premise they concluded that individuals with long noses were all criminals ii. There was also an invalid belief tha
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