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ANTH 3120
Karl Schmid

ANTH 3120 Lecture 8 Backpackers and the Post-Modern Tourist (11/11/13) Who are Tourists? • World Tourism Organization definition does not define what is tourist is accurately Diversity of Tourist: • Nationality • Gender • Domestic versus international • Social class • Modes and attitudes of travel ( how do people actually travel?) Class and tourism: • Leisure tourists were predominantly from top 1-10% by wealth and income ◦ first airplanes -- took 6 or 7 days to fly --> little hops of travels • Pilgrimage tourists were from all classes Class: • People having the same social, economic or educational status • Classifying- how many categories? ◦ Examples: ■ Capitalist and proletariat (Marxist --> the ones who deploy capital and then the rest) ■ 1% and 99% ■ Lower (working) Class; Middle Class; Upper Class ■ classified by income/wealth, education • The Canadian and global middle class ◦ Middle class at the time of the French Revolution (business owners) ◦ Middle Class Today - people with decent jobs etc./ stable incomes/ pensions/ ability to save money/ access to education not always available to others/ability to start small businesses ■ Family incomes before $40-125K considered to be middle class ■ Low Income: Below $40K a year ■ Most are around $60K ■ Makes up about 20% of the population ◦ Global Middle Class (11%) ■ 78% of world's population are 'low income' ■ Low Income: $4K a year ■ Italy is bottom middle class ■ Middle class of Global Income is $4-17K a year ■ Upper Class of Global Income is greater than $17K a year ■ In most countries the middle class is 8-12% and upper class is about 4-5%, the rest is lower class ■ Travel for middle class might have to save for 15-20 years Classificatory stuggles: • Classism ( and language) - judge people on the class they belong to ◦ prejudice and discrimination ◦ Language ( lower class, if something 'has class') • Belief in superiority ◦ Racism • Snobbery ("taste") ANTH 3120 Lecture 8 Backpackers and the Post-Modern Tourist (11/11/13) ◦ what is classy • Prejudice • Tourists of different classes engage in classificatory struggles • Old Money (conservative- classy) and New Money ( someone who got rich fast ex. Donald Trump) • at each level is a belief of superiority, snobbery based on taste and prejudice that happens within the levels • Ex.Monopoly Experiment: One person gets double the money and advantages than the other ◦ behaviour changes • Tourist try to distinguish themselves because they operate in different social spheres ◦ different kinds of experiences ◦ different classes have different tourist goals and aspiration ◦ Thomas Cooke - bringing tourism and leisure to working class, wanted to stop alcoholism ■ HisSon, John Mason Cooke wanted to cater to the elite ■ innovated to cater to royals and the wealthy ■ developed Egypt much more because it was a very expensive destination ■ Can distinguish yourself by travelling Egypt and more exotic places Pierre Bourdieu: • Munt agrees with Bourdieu ◦ "classes wage a hegemonic battle of 'classificatory struggles' seeking to distinguish themselves from each other by education, residence and of course through commodities" ◦ Classes have their own distinctive habitus - habituated set of practices, a 'normal' way of practicing tourism ■ all classes create their own sense of habits ■ most of the time our behaviour happens on a relatively unconscious level ■ ex. tip of the iceberg analogy ( the 10% and 90%) ■ how we behave : stand and present ourselves is a habituated practices ■ Tourism places those from different places and backgrounds are challenged and forced to work together ■ ex. personal space -- comfort level is different for different parts of the world • Cultural Capital ◦ Economic Capital ■ wealth, income and financial capital ■ meeting needs and wants ◦ Social Capital ■ the people you know (ex. LinkedIn & Facebook connections) ANTH 3120 Lecture 8 Backpackers and the Post-Modern Tourist (11/11/13) ■ social network, social relationship that have importance to the individual ■ meeting needs and wants as well ■ ex. looking for a job you use your social network of family and friends to get connections ◦ Cultural Capital ■ Knowledge, education, degree ■ The experience you've enquired ■ For those that want to get a job through the skills developed overtime ■ How one relates to friends and family ■ How you see yourself • Tourism deploy economic capital to travel ◦ social capitalist is knowing who to mingle with in order to travel or once you get there ◦ Cultural Capital is the most important -- resume of travel ■ Ex. including that you traveled overseas ■ awareness of the world and have financial ability to travel ■ adaptable, flexible and can problem solve ■ shows independence and language ■ distinguish the self from others ■ craft the image of yourself in a more extravagant way • Seven British Social Classes: ◦ Precariat : 15% of pop, make less than $15K a year ◦ Traditional Working Class ◦ Emergent Service Workers ◦ Technical Middle Class ◦ Elite : top 6 % of UK, $250K and up ◦ New Affluent Workers ◦ Established Middle Class • Not just about education or social status but also how much you make and can save in a year • differen
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