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York University
ANTH 3120
Karl Schmid

Video: The Tourist Trade (Western Africa) (1991) • Spatial control of tourism (like cruise ships) that keeps tourists and local residents apart • Large areas that are not modern • No progress in agriculture • Life revolves around traditional activities • No agriculture to export • Short in developments • No high-rise buildings in cities either • Aforeign visitor may see a lack of modernity as an asset • The Bombuna falls seen as attractive • Warm seas, tropical climate • The government increased the plans of foreign visitors, and sees it as a way of improving the economy. 20% increase. • Sees tourism as an industry that will generate exchange • Chronic shortage of gas that is imported from other countries • The government wants to develop the roads to attract more tourists, with the help of Germany and Britain • In The Gambia—huge tourist population • Local residents like bad girl and boys are kept away from the tourists and tourist site. Some of the local residents sell drugs to the tourists and rob them. All tourists are warned about the risks when they arrive. Incidents where tourists have been attacked like in remote areas. Petty crimes, prostitution are associated with tourism. • The money tourist brings into the country is needed, but tourism brings problems too— they believe they are losing their land to foreigners. Tourism has done more harm than good. • Tourism can create jobs, and give the government more money for development • From 0 tourists to 500 tourists. Globalization, Development, and Enclave Tourism Globalizaton, neocolonialist tourism, and the ‘champagne glass world’ Chart: Riches—82% of world income, second, third, fourth, poorest. • R. Jaakson • Global divide • Colonialism • Neo-colonialism • Development • Modernization Colonization is important in tourism because there was strong economic relations between the colonlizing countries and the colonized. There were goods flowing. For example, the French spread the French language inAfrica.As we move through independence, we move to this period of development. The wealthy countries could assist these countries to modernize. These developing countries would catch up with the development of the west. The way that these European countries modernized was not through trade but through colonization. This modernization example didn’t really work except in parts ofAsia where countries had independence from dominant euro form of control. The top wealthy people had 30 times the income of the bottom model. In the Jackson article he says, there is neo-colonization. Dominance over many colonized countries has continued. The dominant airlines that bring the tourists, the hotel managers are Europeans brought in by Europeans countries to manage. Same with cruise ship companies. One of the problems that tourism has is that it is dominated by inequality. Who benefits most financially from the tourism industry? Its developing countries who are hosting the tourism are not benefiting financially. One of the reasons the money doesn’t get to them is because they have found ways to capture those tourist expenditures. Enclave tourism development Enclave: a space containing people who are socially or culturally different from those surrounding them. Tim Edensor’s definition of enclave. “organized” tourist spaces (especially in developing countries) are typified by their ‘enclave’character. Here, tourists are characteristically cut from social contact with the local populace and are shielded from potential offensive sights, sounds and smells.” • Tourism is developed in more protective and enclaved places. • Idea of segregation –more people spend time on cruise ships in Caribbean, than on land. • Heavily secured areas for tourists like beaches • Cleanse homeless people in order to preserve a comfortable image for tourists • Malls and casinos • What are the impact of enclaves? • What are some of the reasons for their development? Possible explanations for tourist enclaves 1. Global-national path of development 2. Tourist anxieties and preferences 3. ‘protection’of the (Affluent) tourists 4. Internal conflicts 5. Control and revenue capture strategy of tourist operators 6. Outgrowth of historical pro
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