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4 Pages

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BIOL 1000
Michael Gadsden

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BIOL 1010 Test 2 Study Guide This guide should help you focus but does not contain everything on the test (most though!) If you’ve been studying throughout the term, these guides should really help! Good Luck  Can you recognize purines from pyrimidines? Nucleotides from nucleosides?  Purines are Adenosine and Guanine – 2 carbon ring structures  Prymidines are Cytosine, Uracil and Thymine – 1 carbon ring structure  Nucleotides are different in the fact that they have a phosphate group. o Nucleotides = Sugar + Base + PHOSPHATE o Nucleosides = Sugar + Base  What differentiates a plant cell from an animal cell? Euk from prok? What is unique to Archaea (ie like a phospholipid differences)  Cell walls, vacuole etc. (Plant vs. Animal)  Way too much to account for in differences between Euk and Prok o Some are the style of genomes, storage and replication of DNA, cell wall, etc  Archaea have branched methyl (or more) groups on their phospholipids  What is the structure and characteristics of a phospholipid and how does it differ from a fatty acid (cis and trans, saturated and unsat), a glycolipid? What factors affect membrane fluidity?  Phospholipid is a phosphate attached to a triglycerol fatty acid  Fatty acids have different structures: o Cis  Double bonds, all H on the same side o Trans  Double Bonds, H on alternating sides o Unsaturated  As above, Double bonds o Saturated  Only single bonds  Glycolipid  Sugar chain + fatty acid  Factors that affect fluidity are: o Different proteins and combos that are in the bilayer o The polarity  Where and how are peptide bonds made? What is peptidoglycan? Is it in the ECM?  Peptide bonds are made in the ribosomes, using RNA as a catalyst  Peptidoglycan is the bacterial cell wall. And thus is NOT in the ECM o Note, gram + have lots of this, gram – have very little  DNA structure – nucleosomes, 30 nm solenoid strcute, double helic base pairing, telomeres, genome, chromatin, plasmids, etc  30 nm Solenoid made by histones (excluding histone 1)  Double Helical base pairing done by H bonding o C G o T=A Don’t memorize the steps in the Krebs’ and calvin cycles. What is made, what is the purpose, points about the cycles I made in class.  Krebs: o Glucose enters, becomes g6p cant leave o Acetyl-CoA created and ATP is USED o Makes NADH  Calvin Cycle o “Dark Reactions” o Reduces CO 2o carbohydrates o Uses NADH and ATP o Rubisco (most abundant in world)  ETC o Proton motive force created by passing on of electrons through the mitochondrial matrix (Bacteria have it on plasma membrane) o PMT diffuses through ATP Synthase and makes ATP o Lots of electrochemical energy in this gradient! What is a sarcomere and what is it used for? How is it regulated?  A sarcomere is within a muscle and it is used for contraction and actual use of a muscle  It is regulated by o  levels of organization (ie community etc)  Cell, Multicellular organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere  What is going on at the nucleus? Direction of movement through the pores?  Lots, DNA replication  mRNA creation and modification  Bidirectional movement at nucleus, BUT it is semi-perme
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