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Dec. Exam - Version B.pdf

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BIOL 1000
Tanya Cnoel

1 2009-­‐2010  SC/BIOL  1010  6.0  December  Exam  -­‐  Dec.  21,  2009   Section  B  [Taught  by  Dr.  Tanya  Noel]   ANSWER  KEY     This  test  consists  of  57  multiple  choice  questions  (including  section  and  version  indicators).  There  are   15  pages.  This  test  is  90  minutes  long.   The  entire  question  booklet  and  your  scantron  must  be  submitted  to  rec▯eive  a  grade.  Indicate  your  full   name  and  student  number  on  the  scantron  and  on  this  page.  (Please  double-­‐check  your  student   number  bubbling.)  Be  sure  to  sign  the  sign-­‐in  sheet.  Your  name  must  be  written  in  permanent  ink  in   all  places.   Please  answer  all  questions  on  the  scantron.   Choose  the  single  best  answer  out  of  the  options  for  each  question.  Read  each  question  (and  ▯all   possible  answers)  carefully.   Calculators,  cell  phones,  mp3  players  and  other  electronic  devices  are  NOT  permitted,  and  must  be   put  away.   Invigilators  reserve  the  right  to  move  students  during  the  test.  This  may  not  reflect  any  suspicion  of   you  (e.g.,  someone  behind  you  may  be  looking  at  your  paper).  However,  please  note  that  aiding  and   abetting  cheating  is  considered  an  academic  honesty  offense  in  itself.   If  you  have  not  finished  by  8:25  PM,  you  must  remain  at  your  seat  until▯  the  exam  is  over  and  your   test  has  been  picked  up.       Good  luck!   Last  name   First  name           Student  number         2   Please check that you have bubbled your student number correctly on the scantron. 1. You  are  in  BIOL  1010  B.  (If  you  are  NOT  in  Section  B  of  the  course,  see  an  invigilator  IMMEDIATELY.)   Indicate  B  on  the  scantron.  [This  helps  us  keep  things  organized!]   A. No  X   B. Pick  me!!!       C. No  X   D. No  X   E. No  X     2. You  have  exam  version  B,  which  must  be  indicated  on  the  scantron  to  get  credit  for  test  ▯questions.   A. No  X   B. Pick  me!!!       C. No  X   D. No  X   E. No  X     3. Which  of  the  following  statements  about  ATP  synthesis  in  bacteria  ▯and  archaea  is  true?     A. They  oxidize  NADH  on  the  plasma  membrane.     B. They  are  unable  to  use  oxygen.     C. They  do  not  make  ATP.     D. Most  ATP  is  produced  in  their  mitochondria.   4. Which  of  the  following  best  describes  the  process  of  competiti▯ve  feedback  inhibition?   A. The  inhibitor  binds  to  the  substrates  of  the  reaction.   B.  The  products  of  the  reaction  block  the  active  site  of  the  enzyme.   C. The  products  of  the  reaction  bind  to  a  site  other  than  the  active  site  of  the  enzyme  and  block   enzyme  activity  indirectly.   D. The  substrate  and  cofactors  compete  with  one  another  for  the  active  site.       5. Which  of  the  following  statements  regarding  enzymes  is  true?         A. Enzymes  prevent  changes  in  substrate  concentrations.   B. Enzymes  decrease  the  free  energy  change  (ΔG)  of  a  reaction.         C. Enzymes  increase  the  rate  of  a  reaction.         D. Enzymes  change  the  direction  of  chemical  reactions.         E. Enzymes  are  permanently  altered  by  the  reactions  they  catalyze.           3 Figure  1.  Enzymes  tested  under  varying  temperatures.   6. In  the  above  figure,  which  curve  represents  the  behaviour  of  an  enzyme  taken  from  a  bact▯erium   that  lives  in  hot  springs  at  60°C  -­‐  75°C??   A. curve  X         B. curve  Y         C. curve  Z         D. Both  curve  X  and  Z.   E. Both  curve  Y  and  Z.     7. Glycolysis  is  regulated  in  response  to  the  amount  of  ATP  in  the  cell.  Specificall▯y,  high  levels  of  ATP   regulate  the  activity  of  phosphofructokinase,  a  key  enzyme  in  glycolysis.  How  does  this  regulation   occur?   A. ATP  inhibits  the  synthesis  of  new  enzyme  molecules.   B. ATP  binds  to  the  enzyme’s  regulatory  site,  resulting  in  a  conformational  change  that  inhibits   enzyme  activity.   C. ATP  activates  the  production  of  new  enzyme  molecules.   D. ATP  binds  to  the  enzyme’s  active  site,  increasing  enzyme  activity.       8. Many  anaerobic  organisms,  when  under  conditions  of  oxygen  deprivation,  will  carry  out   A. the  Krebs  cycle  only.   B. glycolysis  only.   C. fermentation  only.     Fermentation alone isn’t of much use – the reactions allow glycolysis to continue, D. glycolysis  and  fermentation.   generating more ATP. E. glycolysis  and  the  Krebs  cycle.       9. Where,  in  the  eukaryotic  cell,  does  glycolysis  take  place?   A. plasma  membrane.   B. inner  membrane  of  mitochondria.   C. intermembrane  compartment  of  mitochondria.   D. mitochondrial  matrix.   E. cytoplasm.   4   10. During  cellular  respiration,  the  carbons  present  in  pyruvate  initially  derive  from  _____  and  are  ▯ ultimately  converted  to  _____.     A. Acetyl  CoA;  CO 2   B. Glucose;  CO   2 C. Glucose;  +TP   D. NAD ;  ATP       11. All  of  the  following  statements  are  true  regarding  both  eukaryotic▯  respiration  and  photosynthesis,   EXCEPT:   A. Electron  carriers  (NAD  or  NADP )  are  involved  in  some  key  reaction  steps.   B. Transfer  of  electrons  occurs  via  electron  acceptors,  including  cytochrome  complexes.   C. Oxygen  is  the  final  electron  acceptor  in  both  sets  of  reactions.   D. Both  processes  involve  a  series  of  redox  reactions.     E. ATP  generation  by  chemiosmosis  occurs  inside  the  organelles.           Fig.  2.  The  absorption  spectrum  for  chlorophyll   a  and  the  action  spectrum  for  photosynthesis  in  Mysterius   plantus.   12. Please  consult  Figure  2.  Of  the  following,  which  wavelength  of  light  (as  shown  in  the  figure)  is  most   effective  in  driving  photosynthesis?       A. 730  nm       B. 675  nm       C. 575  nm       D. 475  nm       E. 420  nm             5 13. Which  of  the  following  statements  best  represents  the  relationships▯  between  the  light  reactions   and  the  Calvin  cycle?       A. The  light  reactions  provide  ATP  and  NADPH  to  the  carbon  fixation  step  of  the  Calvin  cycle,  and   the  cycle  provides  water  and  electrons  to  the  light  reactions.       B. The  light  reactions  supply  the  Calvin  cycle  with  CO  to  produce  sugars, 2and  the  Calvin  cycle   supplies  the  light  reactions  with  sugars  to  produce  ATP.       C. The  light  reactions  provide  the  Calvin  cycle  with  oxygen  for  electron  flow,  and  the  Calvin  cycle   provides  the  light  reactions  with  water  to  split.       D. The  light  reactions  provide  ATP  and  NADPH  to  the  Calvin  cycle,  and  the  cycle  returns  ADP,  Pi,   and  NADP  to  the  light  reactions.       E. There  is  no  relationship  between  the  light  reactions  and  the  Calvin  cycle.           Figure  3   14. Which  numbers  in  the  above  figure  correspond  to  regions  where  yo▯u  would  expect  a  high   concentration  of  protons?       A. 1  and  3.       B. 2  and  4.       C. 1  and  4.       D. 2  and  3.   E. 1  and  5.           15. Which  of  the  following  is  the  best  explanation  for  why  the  light  reactions  have  both  cyclic  and   noncyclic  electron  pathways?   A. to  provide  more  electrons  from  water  than  would  be  released  by  th▯e  noncyclic  pathway.   B. because  the  light-­‐independent  reactions  require  ATP  and  NADPH  in  different  amounts  than   are  generated  by  noncyclic  electron  flow.   C. to  ensure  that  ATP  and  NAPDH  are  generated  in  a  1:1  molar  ratio.   D. because  the  different  pathways  generate  different  carbon  skeletons  f▯or  use  in  later  reactions.         6   16. Which  of  the  following  statements  is  correct  regarding  photorespiration?   A. Photorespiration   does   not   occur   in   living   plants   because   the   structure   of   the   chloroplast   prevents  oxygen  from  binding  to  rubisco.   B. Photorespiration   takes   place   in   the   cytoplasm,   and   carbon   fixation   takes   place   in   the   chloroplast.   C. Photorespiration  does  not  require  energy,  so  it  does  not  affect  the  efficiency  of  photosynthesis.   D. Photorespiration  takes  place  in  the  mitochodria  while  photosynt▯hesis  is  underway.   E. Photorespiration  is  an  energy-­‐requiring  process  that  reduces  the  efficiency  of  photosynthesis.     17. Choose  the  option  that  best  represents  the  largest  →  smallest  order:   A. Chromosome,  gene,  genome   B. Genome,  chromosome,  gene.   C. Chromosome,  genome,  gene   D. Genome,  gene,  chromosome   E. Gene,  genome,  chromosome     18. Which  of  the  following  statements  does  NOT  describe  what  occurs  in  meiosis  I?     A. Tetrads  migrate  to  the  metaphase  plate.     B. Sister  chromatids  separate  and  begin  moving  to  opposite  sides  of  the  cell.     C. Homologous  chromosomes  separate  and  begin  moving  to  opposite▯  sides  of  the  cell.   D. Overall  chromosome  number  is  reduced.   E. Crossing  over  of  non-­‐sister  chromatids  occurs.     19. Which  of  the  following  is  true  regarding  cancer?   A. Cancer  involves  uncontrolled  cell  division.     B. Most  cancers  are  the  result  of  a  single  mutation.   C. Cancer  involves  the  interference  with  tumour  suppressor  genes  by  proto-­‐oncogenes.   D. While  cancer  can  occur  in  different  regions  of  the  body,  it  is  considered  a  similar  disease  in   terms  of  pathology  and  treatment.   E. More  than  one  of  the  above  statements  in  A  through  D  is  true.       20. Bacteria  with  circular  chromosomes  do  not  produce/require  telomerases.  This  is  becaus▯e   A. bacteria  can  lose  many  hundreds  of  genes  over  a  lifetime  without  i▯ll-­‐effect.   B. circular  molecules  have  no  end.   C. bacteria  do  not  possess  chromosomes.   D. bacteria  have  different  DNA  polymerase  enzymes.   E. bacteria  lack  ribosomes.     7 21. Control  of  the  eukaryotic  cell  cycle  involves  all  of  the  foll▯owing  in  A  through  D,  EXCEPT   A. internal  controls  at  checkpoints  to  ensure  that  the  reactions  of  one  stage  are  complete  before   the  cycle  proceeds  to  the  next  stage   B. external  controls  recognized  by  surface  receptors  that  bind  signals  such  as  peptide  hormones,   growth  factors,  and  lead  to  signal  transduction  pathways  affecting  progression  o▯f  the  cell  cycle.   C. activities  of  proteins  encoded  by  tumour  suppressor  genes,  such  as  p53,  which  can  lead  to   programmed  cell  death  under  some  circumstances.   D. direct  control  by  complexes  of  cyclins  and  cyclin-­‐dependent  protein  kinases  (CDKs).   E. All  of  the  above  are  involved  in  control  of  the  cell  cycle.   22. Pepsin,  a  digestive  enzyme  that  degrades  proteins  in  the  stomach,  is  synthesized  as  pepsinogen   and  converted  to  active  pepsin  in  the  stomach  by  the  removal  of  ▯several  amino  acids.  The   activation  of  pepsin  is  an  example  of   A. transcriptional  regulation.   B. posttranscriptional  regulation.   C. translational  regulation.   D. posttranslational  regulation.       23. The  process  of  transcription  refers  to  the  use  of  information  e▯ncoded  in  ____  to  make  a  ____.   A. DNA;  polypeptide   B. DNA;  complementary  RNA  copy   C. a  polypeptide;  complementary  RNA  copy   D. DNA;  complementary  DNA  strand   E. RNA;  complementary  DNA  strand     24. A  cell  contains  92  chromatids  in  G 2  phase.  After  completion  of  mitosis  each  daughter  cell  nucleus   would  contain  how  many  chromosomes?   A. 92     B. 46     C. 23   D. 16   E. 12     25. Which  of  the  following  statements  is/are  true  regarding  cellular  si▯gnalling?   A. It  includes  signal  reception,  transduction  and  response  processes.   B. Signals   may   be   recognized   by   membrane-­‐bound   proteins   or   in   the   cytosol   by   intracellular   receptors.   C. It  occurs  in  animal  cells,  but  not  in  plants  nor  in  fungi.   Cell D. Only  two  (2)  of  the  statements  in  A  through  C  are  true  of  cellular  signalling.   signalling occurs in all E. All  of  the  above  statements  in  A  through  C  are  true  of  cellular  sig▯nalling.   types of organisms. 8   26. If  a  cell  has  a  diploid  number  of  32,  how  many  chromosomes  are  present  in  the  nucleus  at  the   beginning  of  meiosis?  How  many  chromosomes  are  present  in  each  resulting  cell  at  the  end  of   meiosis?     A. beginning  16;  end  8.   B. beginning:  16;  end:  32.     C. beginning:  32;  end:  16.   D. beginning:  32;  end:  32.     E. beginning:  32;  end:  64.       27. Which  of  the  following  is  FALSE  regarding  cell  division?   A. Cell  division  is  involved  in  healing  and  regeneration  processes  of  multicellular  o▯rganisms.   B. In  bacteria,  cell  division  typically  occurs  via  binary  fission,  yielding  two  (2)  genetically  identical   daughter  cells.   C. In  eukaryotes,  mitotic  cell  division  yields  two  (2)  genetically  identical  daughter  cells.     D. In  eukaryotes,  meiotic  cell  division  yields  four  (4)  genetically  identical  daughter  cells.       28. Which  of  the  following  is  NOT  a  recognized  way  in  which  genetic  diversity  can  arise?   A. crossing  over  in  meiosis  of  eukaryotes   B. fusion  of  different  gametes  in  sexual  reproduction   Bacterial cell division produces identical C. mutation  in  bacteria  and  eukaryotes   daughter cells - vertical gene transfer D. vertical  gene  transfer  in  bacteria     does not introduce diversity here. E. horizontal  gene  transfer  in
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