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BIOL 1000- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 13 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1000
Professor
Nicole Nivillac
Study Guide
Midterm

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York
BIOL 1000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1: Light and Life w/ Learning Outcomes:
1.1 The Physical Nature of Light
Light has two main functions for life on Earth: Energy and Information.
Eyespot: Light sensor allows individual cells to gather information about the surrounding
environment e.g. location, light intensity.
1.1 a What is Light?
Light: Defined as the portion of electromagnetic spectrum that human eye can detect.
Range of Light: A narrow portion of electromagnetic spectrum ranges from only 400nm
to 700 nm.
Electromagnetic Spectrum: The wave of frequencies or wavelength of electromagnetic
radiation that ranges from the very short wavelengths of Gamma rays to the longest
wavelengths of radio waves.
Electromagnetic Radiations: The radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic
process.
Photosynthesis uses only narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Most Radiations leaving the Surface of Earth: Infrared Rays
Most Radiations Reaching the Earth Surface: Ultraviolet Radiation to Near Infrared rays.
Light explained best as wave of photons
Photon: Stream of energy particles
Relationship b/w wavelength of light and energy: inverse.
Longer the wave lower the energy of photons.
Shorter the wave higher the energy of photons.
1.1 b Light Interacts with Matter:
Light has no mass.
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Three possible states when light hits the objects: Reflection, Absorption or Transmission.
Absorption occurs: When the energy of the photon is transferred to the electron of the
molecule. ( movement of electron from ground state to excited state = Energy)
Photon can be absorbed only: if the the energy of the photon matches the energy
necessary to move an electron from its ground to excited state.
Pigments: A molecule that absorbs the photons.
Conjugated Bonding:
A type of bonding where carbon atoms are covalently bonded to each alternating single
and double bonds.
Critical for light absorption in certain pigments.
Causes delocalization of electrons.
Delocalized electrons: Not involved in bonding of a certain pigment thus helps to
interact with a photon of light.
Pigments can absorbs only certain types of wavelength: Because of their difference in
chemical structure (different excited states)
Pigments have different excited states: Ranges from one and more.
Pigment color that we see is the result of the light that it reflects.
1.2 Light as a Source of Energy:
Biosphere: All region of Earth’s crust: Water, etc. that are important to sustain life.
Energy from Sun enters the Biosphere through the process of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis: Light Absorption in Chlorophyll ET NADPH +ATP Calvin
Cycle to convert carbon into Glucose. ( Carbohydrates)
Cellular Respiration: Breakdown of Carbohydrates into energy (ATP).
Halo-bacterium (Genus of Archaea) :
Doesn’t particularly use bacteriorhodopsin to convert CO2 to Carbohydrates but for other
energy requiring reactions
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