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York University
BIOL 1000
David Stamos

1. Maximum  sustainable  yield  is  when  as  many  individuals  as  possible  are  removed  from  the  population  without   impairing  the  population’s  growth  rate.  At  which  point  on  the  logistic  growth  curve  is  the  maximum   sustainable  yield?   A. When  the  population  size  is  at   the  carrying  capacity  (K).   B. When  the  population  size  is  at  half  the  carrying  capacity  ( K/2).   C. When  growth  rate  is  equal  to  population  size.   D. When  the  population  size  is  in  lag  growth.       2. In  what  respect  do  humans  differ  from  all  other  anthropoids?     A. bipedal  posture     B. lack  of  a  tail     C. eyes  on  the  front  of  the  face     D. opposable  thumbs       3. It  is  speculated  that  H.  floresiensis  and  H.  sapiens  may  have  lived  on  the  island  of  Flores  (in  Indonesia)   concurrently.  Researchers  obtained  mitochondrial  DNA  samples  from  the   H.  floresiensis  remains,  amplified  a   1000-­‐base-­‐pair  sequence  via  PCR,  and  compared  it  to  that  of  several  currently  living   H.  sapiens  native  to   Indonesia,  North  Africa,  and  North  America.  H.  floresiensis  were  found  to  differ  from  the  average   Indonesian   H.  sapiens  in  28  base  pairs,  from  the  average  North  African   H.  sapiens  in  51  base  pairs,  and  from  the  average   North  American  H.  sapiens  in  53  base  pairs,  while  two  randomly  selected  H.  sapiens  differed  from  each  other   in  an  average  of  21  base  pairs.  What  would  yo u  surmise  from  these  data?     A. H.  floresiensis  and  H.  sapiens  probably  lived  on  Flores  concurrently,  but  did  not  interact.     B. H.  floresiensis  and  H.  sapiens  probably  lived  on  Flores  concurrently,  and  H.  sapiens  killed  and  consumed   H.  floresiensis.     C. H.  floresiensis  and  H.  sapiens  probably  lived  on  Flores  concurrently,  and  interbred  to  some  degree.     D. H.  floresiensis  and  H.  sapiens  probably  did  not  live  on  Flores  concurrently.       4. Which  of  the  following  provides  a  chicken  rancher  using  a  free -­‐roaming  arrangement  for  his  flock  the  data   necessary  to  ensure  maximum  survival  of  his  hens?   A. Total  number  of  chickens.   B. Distribution  of  chickens  throughout  the  range.   C. The  number  of  chickens  on  the  range.   D. Total  square  footage  of  the  range.     5. Which  of  the  following  is  NOT  true  regard ing  population  counts?   A. A  full  population  count  is  usually  impractical.   B. Ecologists  estimate  a  population’s  total  density  from  a  sample  of  the  population.   C. A  full  population  count  is  possible  for  large  animals  in  small  areas.   D. Capture-­‐recapture  methods  are  used  to  estimate  the  population’s  size  of  species  that  do  not  ‘stay  put’.   E. Sampling  within  quadrats  is  particularly  useful  for  most  populations  of  migrating  animals.               6. To  measure  the  population  density  of  squirrels  occupying  a  particular  park,  10  squirrels  are  captured,  marked   with  non-­‐toxic  paint  on  their  tail,  &  then  released.    The  next  day,  another  10  squirrels  are  captured,  including   the  recapture  of  5  marked  squirrels.  What  is  the  population  estimate  from  these  data?   A. 20   B. 50   C. 100   D. 1  000     7. Uniform  spacing  patterns  in  plants,  such  as  the  creosote  bush  are  most  often  associated  with   A. the  random  distribution  of  seeds   B. the  concentration  of  nutrients  within  the  population’s  range.   C. competitive  interactions  among  individuals  in  the  population.     D. chance     8. A  population  pyramid:   A. reflects  the  number  of  individuals  in  various  age  groups  in  a  population.   B. directly  predicts  future  age  distributions  of  the  population.   C. predicts  survival  and  mortality  rates  for  an  individual  at  a  given  age.   D. shows  the  current  birth  and  death  rates  o f  a  population.   E. can  be  constructed  from  data  gathered  in  one  census  of  a  population.     9. Which  of  the  following  describes  the  reproductive  strategy  of  Pacific  salmon,  which  die  shortly  after  spawning   (reproduction)?   A. Allee  strategy   B. Iteroparous   C. Semelparous   D. Dispersed     10.Why  can't  a  female  lizard  have  both  high  fecundity  and  high  survival?     A. In  only  rare  cases,  lizards  have  both  high  fecundity  and  high  survival.     B. Female  lizards  are  able  to  produce  only  one  set  of  offspring.     C. Competition  for  resources  prevents  thi s.     D. The  more  energy  the  female  devotes  to  offspring,  the  less  that  can  be  devoted  to  her  survival.       11.The  death  rate  of  organisms  in  a  population  exhibiting  a  Type  III  survivorship  curve  is:   A. lower  after  the  organisms  survive  to  the  critical  age  of  establish ment.   B. usually  correlated  with  disease.   C. usually  correlated  with  density -­‐dependent  causes.   D. higher  in  post-­‐reproductive  than  in  pre-­‐reproductive  years.   E. more  or  less  constant  throughout  their  lives.             12.An  r-­‐selected  species  would  be  expected  to  exhibit   survivorship  curve  ___  and  ____offspring.   A. Type  I,  many  small   B. Type  I,  many  large   C. Type  III,  few  large   D. Type  III,  many  small   E. Type  III,  many  large     13.Exponential  growth  can  continue  indefinitely  only  if   A. the  carrying  capacity  of  the  habitat  ( K)  is  very  high.   B. the  population  starts  out  very  small.   C. the  population  starts  out  high  but  grows  slowly.   D. the  carrying  capacity  is  zero.   E. None  of  the  above  is  correct;  exponential  growth  cannot  continue  indefinitely.     14.Populations  that  exhibit  logistic  growth  still  exhibit   exponential  growth.  This  statement  is:   A. true;  populations  exhibiting  logistic  growth  go  through  a  period  of  exponential  growth  before  growth   rates  level  off  around  zero.   B. true;  logistic  growth  is  another  term  for  exponential  growth.   C. true;  however,  this  can  only  occur  in  different  populations  of  the  same  organism  because  one  population   cannot  exhibit  both  types  of  growth.   D. false;  exponential  growth  and  logistic  growth  are  characteristics  of  different  species.   E. false;  populations  exhibiting  logistic  growth  show  e xponential  growth  when  the  population  size  is  greater   than  the  environment's  carrying  capacity.     15.When  does  the  growth  rate  of  a  population  equal  zero?   A. when  deaths  exceed  births   B. when  K-­‐N/K  is  one   C. when  K-­‐N/K  is  zero   D. when  K-­‐N/K  is  one-­‐half     16.Factors  that  are  usually  biotic  in  nature  and  change  in  intensity  as  a  function  of  population  size  are   A. Density-­‐dependent  factors   B. Density-­‐independent  factors   C. Density-­‐neutral  factors   D. Exponential  growth  factors     17.A  metapopulation  is   A. An  unusually  large  population   B. A  population  that  is  spread  out  over  a  large  area   C. A  group  of  subpopulations  that  are  isolated  from  one  another   D. A  group  of  subpopulations  among  which  some  individuals  move  occasionally     E. A  group  of  subpopulations  among  which  individuals  move  on  a  regular  basis.             18.In  conservation  biology,  what  does  the  term  “corridor”  refer  to?   A. The  path  an  organism  takes  from  its  home  to  its  food  source.   B. The  edge  of  a  given  patch  of  habitat.   C. The  path  a  conservation  biologist  takes  through  a  habitat  to  minimize  any  negative  effects  on   the   habitat's  biodiversity.   D. Sections  of  habitat  that  organisms  use  to  travel  between  two  or  more  isolated  patches  of  habitat.   E. None  of  the  above  answers  is  correct.     19.Which  of  the  following  attributes  of  a  species  might  render  it  especially  susceptible  to   extinction?   A. The  species  has  a  short  generation  time.   B. It  has  a  narrow  dispersal  range.   C. It  is  an  invasive  species.   D. It  lives  in  a  marine  habitat.   E. It  exists  in  two  distinct  subpopulations.     20.Some  birds  follow  moving  swarms  of  army  ants  in  the  tropics.  As  the  an ts  march  along  the  forest  floor  hunting   insects  and  small  vertebrates,  birds  follow  and  pick  off  any  insects  or  small  vertebrates  that  fly  or  jump  out  of   the  way  of  the  ants.  This  is  an  example  of  what  kind  of  species  interaction?     A. competition     B. commensalism     C. consumption     D. parasitism     E. mutualism       21.Snails  typically  avoid  sunlit  areas,  but  some  snails  infected  with  certain  parasites  become  attracted  to  light  and   prefer  sunlit  areas.  Which  of  the  following  is  the  most  likely  hypothesis  given  the  life  c ycles  of  many  parasites?     A. The  parasite  itself  must  be  exposed  to  light  in  order  to  survive  in  the  snail.     B. The  snail  is  behaving  differently  in  order  to  rid  itself  of  the  parasite.     C. The  snail  is  dying  from  the  parasite  and  is  therefore  looking  for  the  light .     D. The  parasite  manipulates  the  behaviour  of  the  snail  so  that  it  gets  eaten  more  readily,  which  allows  the   parasite  to  complete  its  life  cycle.     E. The  parasite  must  exit  the  snail  in  a  sunlit  area  in  order  to  move  and  find  its  next  host.       22.While  traveling  in  Texas,  you  stumble  across  a  snake  with  red,  yellow,  and  black  bands.  You  somehow   remember  that  this  could  be  a  poisonous  coral  snake  or  a  harmless  milk  snake,  but  you  forget  how  to   differentiate  them  because  they  both  have  similar  colors  and  banding  patterns.  You  wisely  decide  not  to  pick   up  the  snake.  What  defense  was  successful  in  preventing  you  from  grabbing  the  snake  (other  than  an   instinctive  fear  of  snakes)?     A. constitutive  defense     B. Müllerian  mimicry     C. Batesian  mimicry     D. inducible  defenses     E. none  of  these               23.In  biology,  a  coevolutionary  arms  race  occurs  when  ________.     A. a  pair  of  species  influences  each  others'  evolution   B. a  country  develops  a  new  weapon.     C. a  new  species  evolves  into  two  separate  species.     D. a  new  niche  is  created.       24.The  principle  of  competitive  exclusion  states  that     A. No  two  species  can  coexist  for  long  unless  they  are  sharing  the  same  resource.   B. If  two  species  are  sharing  the  same  resource,  one  will  always  go  extinct.   C. No  two  species  can  coexist  for  long  if  they  are  sha ring  the  same  limiting  resource.   D. Competition  between  two  species  always  results  in  character  displacement.     25.Research  on  barnacle  distribution  in  the  intertidal  zone  reveals  that  species  A  would  readily  colonize  the  lower   intertidal  areas  if  species  B  was  absent.  This  indicates  that:   A. species  A  can  outcompete  species  B  and  reduces  the  fundamental  niche  of  B   B. species  B  can  outcompete  species  A  and  reduces  the  fundamental  niche  of  A   C. species  B  can  outcompete  species  A  and  reduces  the  realized  niche  of  A   D. keystone  predators  play  an  important  role  in  intertidal  ecology.     26.Character  displacement   A. arises  through  competition  and  natural  selection,  favouring  divergence  in  resource  use.   B. arises  through  competition  and  natural  selection,  favouring  convergence  in  resource  use .   C. does  not  promote  speciation.   D. promotes  speciation  via  stabilizing  selection.     27.The  relationship  between  species  richness  and  recovery  from  natural  disturbances  can  best  be  summarized  as   follows:   A. communities  with  more  diversity  recover  less  rapidly  from  natural  disturbances.   B. communities  with  more  diversity  do  not  recover  from  natural  disturbances.   C. communities  with  more  diversity  recover  more  rapidly  from  natural  disturbances.   D. there  is  no  correlation  between  community  diversity  and  recovery  from  natural  disturbances.     28.Energy  flow  in  ecosystems  is  typically  measured  by  looking  at   A. Biomass   B. Productivity   C. Biodiversity   D. Allometry   E. Mimicry       29.Which  of  the  following  best  describes  resource  partitioning/niche   differentiation?   A. Competitive  exclusion  results  in  the  success  of  the  superior  species.   B. Slight  variations  in  niche  allow  similar  species  to  coexist.   C. Two  species  can  coevolve  to  share  the  same  niche.   D. Differential  resource  utilization  results  in  the  decrease   in  species  diversity.       30.Few  carnivores  can  be  supported  in  a  food  web  because   A. Mineral  nutrients  don’t  cycle  quickly  enough   B. They  produce  only  a  few  young  per  generation.   C. A  large  amount  of  energy  is  lost  at  each  trophic  level.     D. Their  generation  time  is  very   long.     31.Keystone  species  can  maintain  species  diversity  in  a  community  if  they   A. Prey  only  on  the  least  abundant  species  in  the  community     B. Prey  on  the  community’s  dominant  species.   C. Competitively  exclude  other  predators.   D. Allow  immigration  of  other  predators.   E. Reduce  the  number  of  disruptions  in  the  community.     32.According  to  the  theory  of  island  biogeography,  which  of  the  following  islands  should  have  the  highest  number
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