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Bio 1000 ch 1 learning objectives.docx

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BIOL 1000
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Bio 1000- Learning Objective Notes Light and Life - Photon: discrete particles or packets of energy - Pigment: molecule that can absorb photons of light - Absorption spectrum: curve representing amount of light absorbed at each wavelength - DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid): large, double stranded helical molecule containing genetic material in all organisms - Gene: unit containing code for protein molecule or one of its parts, or for functioning RNA molecules - Allele: one or two more versions of a gene - Enzyme: protein that accelerates the rate of cellular reaction - Eye: organ animals use to sense light - Eyespot: image forming eyes (not specific image) - Bioluminescence: organisms that produce light (particularly when disturbed) - Melanin: a pigment that absorbs UV radiation (used by animals with naked skin) - Vitamin D: critical for normal bone development, is in some foods - Camouflage: works when one animal fails to distinguish another from the background - Circadian rhythms: psychological and behavioural responses geared to Earth’s day and night cycle (circa=around, diem=day)—sleep-wake cycles, body temp, cell division - Light pollution: rapid proliferation of artificial light, illuminates streets, buildings (lightbulbs) - Light interacts with matter in three ways: when photons of light hit an object, they can be REFLECTED (the colours we see, b/c the photons do not use this as energy), TRANSMITTED (matter is transmitted through the object), or ABSORBED by object (used for energy) - Photosynthesis sustains almost all life. Uses energy in sunlight to build sugar molecules from carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen. Process is used by organisms that carry out cellular respiration , use products as a useable form of energy - Organisms can sense light in their surroundings even if they lack eyes through eyespots. With an eyespot present, lights direction and intensity can be sensed. (more info p. 8) - Eye and brain co-evolved: detailed visual processing occurs in the brain rather than eye - Variation of eyes can be inherited. The eye that exists in humans evolved by variation and natural selection over time from a simple, primitive eye - Simplest eye: ocellus (in planarians), consists of up to 100 photorecepter cells lining a cup- light
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