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York University
BIOL 1000
Julie Clark

1BIOL 1001 MIDTERM II NOTESPersephone GrecoOttoMICROEVOLUTIONGenetic Variation Mutation and HardyWeinberg PrincipleDefinitionsoPopulationall individuals of a single species that live together in the same place and timeoMicorevolutionsmallscale genetic changes within populations often in response to shifting environmental conditionschance events natural selection genetic drift gene flow oPhenotypic variationdifferences in appearancefunction between individual organismsoQualitative vs Quantitative variationvariation that exists in 2 or more discrete states with intermediate forms absent vs variation that is measured on a continuum rather than discrete unitscategoriesoMeanaverage value of characteristic changed by directional selectionVariation discrete qualitativeeitheror differences or continuous quantitativeindividuals differ in small incremental ways caused by genetics or environment only genetically based variation subject to evolution oGenetic variationproduction of new alleles mutations or rearrangement of existing alleles genetic recombination independent assortment random fertilizationImportance of variation in populations for evolution more genes that code for possibly advantageous phenotypes thus making the population strongerWhy 2 individuals of the same species can have different genotypes but the same phenotype and vice versa phenotype also influenced by environmental factors interaction between genes and environment environment can influence gene expression some variations in DNA dont change the amino acid sequence so no change in phenotypeInterpret from a graph of a quantitative character the degree of variation for that character within the population broad low curvea lot of variation high narrow curvelittle variation width of curve is proportional to variability Mutationsheritable change in DNA oRandomnot acquired because they are seen as advantageous eg deleterious mutations alter an individual in harmful ways lethal mutations cause death neutral
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