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[BIOL 1001] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (69 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide
Final

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York
BIOL 1001
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIOL 1001 Symbiosis Lecture Week 1&2 (January 4 15)
Chapter 3.1 & 3.2: Evolution by Natural Selection (pg. 39-48)
BIOSKILLS 2 (pg. 362-363 & pg. 366-367)
Chapter 6.2 & 6.4: Phylogenies and the History of Life (pg. 118-122 & pg. 130-133)
Chapter 1.1&1.3 Evolution & Cell Theory
An organism is a life form a living entity made u of one or more cells.
Organisms share a suite of five fundamental characteristics:
1. Energy to stay alive and reproduce, organisms have to acquire & use energy.
o Example: Pants absorb sunlight, animals ingest food.
2. Cells organisms are made up of membrane-bound units called cells.
3. Information organisms process hereditary information (in genes), along with
information they acquire from the environment.
4. Replication everything an organism does contributes to replication.
5. Evolution organisms are the products of evolution & their populations continue to
evolve.
Hypotheses & Theories
Hypothesis a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
o Good hypothesis leads to testable predictions (sometime hypothesis = fake).
Theory an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations.
o General enough to have many testable hypotheses related to it.
o Supported by large body of evidence tested multiple ways
o Predictive power must fit observations not used in formulating the theory
The cell theory and the theory of evolution established 2 of the 5 attributes of life:
1. Organisms are cellular.
2. Organisms populations change over time.
Cell a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin, flexible structure
called a plasma membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous
(watery) solution.
o Chemical reactions that sustain life occur within the cell.
o Most cells capable of reproducing by dividing
Cell theory stated…
1. All organisms are made of cells. (pattern)
2. All cells come from pre-existing cells. (mechanism)
o Therefore, all single-celled organisms in a pop. related to 1 common ancestor &
all cells in a multicellular organism descend from 1 ancestral cell.
o Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace all species all distinct,
identifiable types of organisms are connected by common ancestry.
o Charles Darwin The Origin of Species
The question of where cells come from arose leading to the following hypotheses:
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1. Spontaneous generation organisms arise spontaneously under certain
conditions.
2. All-cells-from-cells cells do not spring to life spontaneously but are produced
only when pre-existing cells grow and divide.
o
Louis Pasteur set out to test this prediction experimentally.
Theory proposed explanations for broad patterns in nature.
Hypothesis explanations for more tightly focused questions.
Prediction something that can be measured and that must be correct if a hypothesis is
valid.
Louis Pasteur’s experiment:
Question: Do cells arise spontaneously or from other cells?
Experiment:
o Two treatment groups were created:
1. A broth exposed to a source of pre-existing cells
2. A broth without any pre-existing cells.
o Heat sterilization step.
Conclusion: The spontaneous generation hypothesis was rejected, the flask with no
pre-existing cells resulted in no living material. The flask with pre-existing cells
contained living material. Therefore, cells arise from pre-existing cells, not
spontaneously from nonliving material.
Darwin & Wallace - The theory of evolution by natural selection stated…
1. Characteristics of a population change over time. (pattern)
2. Individuals with certain heritable traits produce more offspring than those
without those traits. (mechanism)
If certain heritable traits lead to increased success in producing offspring,
then those traits become more common in the population over time.
o Therefore, all species are related by decent from a common ancestor & all
species come from (descend) from other pre-existing species.
** Note: Natural selection explained how evolution occurred**
Evolution is a change in the characteristics of a population over time; species are
related to one another and can change through time.
o Evolution is observable & testable
o Evidence-based evidence from numerous branches of science
Evolution occurs when heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction.
Fitness and Adaptation
o Fitness ability of an individual to produce offspring. High F = Many O
o Adaptation a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular
environment.
Q. Alternative hypothesis for the diversity of life?
Intelligent Design (ID), it proposes…
o The world is too complex to have EVOLVED (via natural processes) and thus
require celestial intervention (i.e. the intelligent designer).
o ID cannot be observed but we can observe the effects of ID, not the designer.
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