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Study Guide

[BIOL 1001] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (92 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide
Midterm

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York
BIOL 1001
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture #1- The Nature of Science
What is Science?
Science addresses certain questions, there are limitations
Science is a way to look at the physical world. We can make inferences. Explains natural world
Science is a way of looking at the work that involves critical thinking
Example Ulcers
Gastritis- inflammations of stomach lining, correlated with ulcers
Ulcers highly correlated w/stomach cancer
Eess Aid Hpothesis- treatment: lost of milk, adopt bland diet, changes to reduce stresss;
extremes-> surgery
Ulcer is open sore on an external or internal surface of body, caused by a break in skin or
membrane that fails to heal
Scientific Process
There’s a lot of ouiatio /t sietifi ouities
Conclusions are reversible if the conclusion is incorrect
It involves feedback/scrutinizing ideas
Scientific method is empirical & self-correcting
After observing a phenomenon, we explain it. Explanations are revises until they closely reflect
the actual data
Empirical is based on experience & observations that are rational
Testing Hypothesis is at Heart of Science
Hypothesis must clearly establish an alternative explanation for phenomenon
Generates testable predictions
Needs to be able to tested empirically
Correlation study
- Shows relationships b/t 2 variables. But does not explain why
Important Aspects of Experimental Design
Testable hypothesis is a way to measure a response & a way to divide groups into:
- Cotrol: group that does’t get hpothesized treatet. You a ot tell the otrol group
what they are receiving. You give them a non-futioig ediatio. It’s the plaeo effet
- Treatment: group that gets hypothesized treatment- referent to as experimental group
Important b/c it tests hypothesis
Fidig o support for A doe’t support for B. Most odut a ew eperiet.
Determining Validity of Alternative Hypotheses
Use evidence to determine which alternative stronger/weaker
All ideals (withing natural world) open to scrutinity- modift ideas as new ideas appear
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Atual Results of Warre & Marshall’s “tud
When treated with antibiotics,
Anecdotal Evidence (Logical Fallacy: statistics of small numbers):
Based on 2 or few observations
People olude there is/ is’t a lik etwee 2 thigs
Not rigourously studied
Data is more reliable than anecdotes
Pseudoscience:
Individuals make scientific-sounding claims
Not supported by trustworthy, methodical scientific studies
Hypothesis & Theories
You refine hypothesis based on evidence
Hypothesis is a proposed explaination for a phenomenon
A good hypothesis leads to testable prediction- tests can be shown to be false
Theories Central to Scientific Idea
Evidence-based over-arching explaination for general class of phenomenon
General enough to have many testable hupotheses related to it
Supported by large bodies of ecidence- tested in multiple ways
2 Mayor Unifying Concepts of Biology
1. Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
- Characteristics of pop change over time
- Individuals with certain heritable traits produce more offsprings that those without those traits
- All species are related by decent from a common ancestory & all species come from (descend)
from other pre-existing species
2. Cell Theory
- All organisms are made of cells
- Are cells come from pre-existing cells
- All single-cell organisms in a population related to 1 common ancestor & cells in a multicellular
organism descend from 1 ancestoral cell
Theory of Evolution
(Biological) Evolution: descent w/modification; change in genetic characterisitcs (allele
frequency)) of a population over time
Evolution is a theory like many other accepted theories (gravity, cell, gene theory)
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