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BIOL 1001 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Phylogenetic Tree, Paraphyly, Absolute Dating

Course Code
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide

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E. Phylogenetic
E1. Interpret phylogenetic trees to determine the evolutionary relationships among the organisms or
taxa represent (including alternative representations of same tree), and infer the evolutionary history
of specific traits and when they arose within the tree
a) Determine: speciation events; common ancestors & relatedness between specific lineages;
orientations of time scale; unique vs shared ancestries; and outgroups
- Nodes: represent common ancestry of those descendants. Speciation event occurs.
- Sister group: descendants that split from the same node.
- Outgroup: a taxon outside the group of interest. All members of the group of interest are
more closely related to each other than they are to the outgroup.
- Clade: group of organisms that includes an ancestor & ancestor & all its descendants.
b) Explain how rotations about a node can result in a tree that looks very different, but had the
same meaning (topology)
- Topology: study of geometric properties unaffected by the continuous change of shape or
size of figures
c) Eplai the lik etwee phlogeies ad deset with odifiatios
- tree of life or phylogeny expresses the idea that life is related by common descent.
Phylogenies show that descent with modification by showing the passing of traits from parent
offspring. Modification in organisms occur through mutations. The accumulation of mutations
results in speciation. Phylogenetic trees shows speciation events
E2. Identify a phylogenetic tree or description of a group of organism as monophyletic or not
- Monophyletic: Group of organisms descended from a common evolutionary ancestor or
ancestral group, especially one not shared with another group.
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