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BIOL 1001 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Georges Cuvier, Erasmus Darwin, Andes

Course Code
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide

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Bio 1001 Developing ideas about evolution
Lecture 1-2: Chapter 3 pg 39-41, 55,56
Two explanatory systems: special creation and organic evolution
five differences between these systems
1. one evokes divine being, other is Natural process 2. Timeline is young vs old 3. static
and unchanging vs evolution 4. importance of variability 5. one thinks of us as the top
of biodiversity, and the other sees that there is no ladder of biodiversity
Darwin graduated with degree in theology
most time was spent on land, the great grass lands called the Pampas Andes Mountains,
Brazilian jungles while they were mapping the coastlines for Britain.
Origin of Species- (1859) contained the first evolutionary tree (Decent with modification) and
the Mechanism of Natural selection (favourable attributes for the selected environment will
continue to be passed on)
Ancient greeks: Anaximander who was a philosopher believed the species change over time,
physical forces created the universe as well as life. He knew about fossils and suggested
animals slang from the seas. First written expression of evolution. NO experiments or
mechanism to explain it though.
Philosophical culture: age of reason, material world could be deciphered with logical though
and observation and resist hegemony of religions
Erasmus Darwin was the grandfather of Charles and was a poet \.
Representative person: Voltaire (Freedom of expression)
European Imperialism: were travelling everywhere and documenting findings and
experiencing. Darwin was not an imperialist. Wallace was also representative.
Artificial selection: Intentional modification of or within species over many generations by
selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits
Hence, selective breeding
Wild mustard is a precursor that can be selectively bred to become cabbage, cauliflower,
broccoli etc.
Geology: age of the earth was constantly increasing. Idea of uniformitarianism (things like
erosion). Charles Lyell
Sediments and sedimentary rocks using to contribute to the time span of Earth
Palaeontology: Study of fossils- remains or traces of organism from the past, mostly in
sedimentary rocks. Layers are called stratum
Best known early palaeontologist was frenchmen George Cuvier (before Darwin)
first to extensively document extinct species
labeled the era of “age of reptiles”
Associated with acceptance of extinction
Cuvier discoviers: megatherium, Mosasaur, Pterodactyl
Cuvier principles:
1 The deeper the strata the more dissimilar from fossils of current life.
Not an evolutionist, did not believe in changing forms even incremental. He was a
Jean Baptisite de Lamarck: contemporary Couvier, gets some coverage in high school biology
Lamar didn't talk about Natural selection
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Lamarck saw evolution as serving, life driven from simple to complex and adaptation occurs
through inheritance of acquired characteristics
Use and disuse idea, body parts that are use extensive become larger and stronger, (this is
not true)
Inheritance of acquired characteristics idea, these charactersits acquired by use and disuse
are inherited in such a way that the offsping.
lamarck misconception is that organisms evolve adaptations that they need. Mutations do not
occur to adapt to needs
2nd misconception results from individuals adapting to the environment populations evolved
individuals do not.
Two Major predictions of Evolution
A. Species are not static but change through time
B. species show varying degrees of relatedness five themes vastness of time, Extinction,
Transition features, vestigial features, Real time examples of change
Strata at different horizontal locations can be correlated as well by index fossils. A useful index
fossil has to exist for a relatively brief period of time with a wide distributions
Used for correlating rock layers from widely separated locations
Absolute age do not mean errorless or exact but it means we determine a quantitive figure,
rather than simply say older or younger. Most common technique is radiometric dating.
isotopes differs in the number of neutrons and not protons
Half life is the time it takes for half of the parent radioactive element to decay into a daughter
Half lives of some isotopes
uranium-238 -4.5 billion years
pottasium-40-1.3 billion years
carbon-14 - 5700 years
C-14 is for “recently dead” things . Is used for things up to about 60,00 years Know that K-40 is
used for older things for greater than 100,000 years. Similarly, Ur-238 is used for every old
rocks, 1 million plus. ***add in graph from slides
2. Extinction
living species succeed fossil species. True extinction is an end of a lineage. pseudoextincition of
phyletic extinction is the disappearance of a species that has chained into one or more current
3. Transitional feature
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-A character in a fossil species that is intermediate between older and younger species in the
lineage. Millions of years limbs suitable for aquatic environment beacon suitable environment.
Transitional series like
1. vascular tissue in plants (water tissues)
2. feathers in dinosaurs and bid descendants
3. loss of limbs in snakes
Structure of behaviour of marginal, in any importance to the organism due to its reduced or
incompletely developed state. Similar to functioning striation or behaviour in other species.
Interpretation is that structures were of use to organisms ancestors
Vestigial characters
1. eye socket of cave salamander
2. legs and hip bones of Boa
3. wings in flightless birds
5. Changes in real time
e.g resistance to bacteria and change in beak size accordance to environment conditions and
multiple charges in guppies when predation exposure changes.
two major predictions- 1. Species are not static but change in time, 2. species show varying
degrees of relatedness
Evidence of relatedness of species
-decent from common ancestor
-study of distributions of species or groups of species
--major observation: more similar species tend to be found in the same geographic regions
-humming birds, rattle snakes and cacti are only found in americas (endemic-restriction to
particular area)
-simply, study of likeness
-striking similarities in the parts of different species
-often, even when those parts are put to different uses
-Genetic homologies
—gentic code (amino acids) is universal example of molecular homology
—Organism as dissimilar as humans and bacteria share genes
—-anatomical resemblances amount species are generally there
Homology has applications that we can use to predict the function of gene sequences in
humans if we know what these sequences mean in other organisms
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