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BIOL 1001
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BIOL 1001 STUDY NOTES Test #1 Persephone Greco-Otto Nature of Science: • Science = a process for understanding the world, learn about universe (understand the natural/observable world), evidence, based on critical thinking (kriticos = discerning judgment, kriterion =standards) o Developed through reasoning (inferences = logical conclusions based on observable facts), test explanations against observations of the natural world (empirical = info gained through observation or experimentation), more than 1 scientific method, question-hypothsis-procedure-data-conclusions, never proves/method is flexible • Superstitions  do the actions influence the outcome? Incorrect ideas, animals become superstitious (push lever and delay before food delivered, develop strange behaviours during the lag that they repeat and associate w/food, self-association/conditioning) • Limitations  only natural phenomena, can’t deal w/belief/faith, no moral/aesthetic • Method  observe phenomenon, propose explanation, test through series of explanation  accurate/valid (if explanation matches what’s observed, reproduction) OR revised/alternative explanation proposed • Pseudoscience = individuals make scientific-sounding claims not supported by trustworthy, methodical scientific studies (statement may be true, but relationship isn’t) • Anecdotal Evidence = based on only 1/few observations, not rigorously studied, not large enough sample size • Theory and Hypothesis  Hypothesis = proposed explanation for a phenomenon, must clearly establish mutually exclusive alternative explanations for a phenomenon, generate testable predictions, test empirically (rational, testable, repeatable)  self-correcting o Alternative Hypotheses  use evidence to determine which alternatives stronger/weaker, all ideas open to scrutiny (modify ideas as new evidence appears) o Theory = hypothesis for natural phenomena that is exceptionally well-supported by the data, broad explanations for a wide range of phenomena • Logical Fallacies  post hoc, ergo propter hoc (it happened after, so it was caused by…), confusion of correlation/causation 1 • Evidence and Proof  hypotheses and theories may be supported by evidence but not proven • Believe and Accept  subject to peer review/replication, science based on inferences based on evidence • Function and Purpose  designed tools have purposes, structures/behaviours of living things have functions • Primitive/Less Evolved and Advanced/More Evolved  more highly specialized seen as more advanced, but actually based on how well they’re adapted to their environment • Cause and Chance  chance isn’t meaningless, cause is the “why explanation” • Fact  statements that we know to be true through direct observation • Law  generalization about data and is a compact way of describing what we’d expect to happen in a particular situation • Observation  directly made w/our own sense or indirectly through use of tools • Falsifiable  a conceivable test that might produce evidence proving the idea false • Uncertainty  uncertainty in measurement is range of values within which the true value falls • Error  difference between a measurement and the true value • Prediction  what we would expect to happen or what we expect to observe if this idea were accurate • “Theory of Intelligent Design”  “life is too complex for everything to have developed step by step,” became popular when “creationism” was deemed unconstitutional to be taught, all living things best explained by an intelligent cause and not an environmental cause (no evolution) since world is fantastical, statistical improbabilities o Can’t identify designer, make observations, run experiments, make predictions, make hypotheses (doesn’t fit scientific method), only end products can be observed (no hypotheses), can’t be tested (no predictions/hypothesis, not tested/can’t be falsified), isn’t iterative (either the universe was created or it wasn’t, clergy letter project Evolution, Phylogenetics, History of Evolutionary Thought 2 • Biological Evolution = doesn’t happen among individuals (only grow + change), but over generations (genetic change), different species share common ancestors • Mosaic Evolution = different organisms/parts of organisms don’t evolve at the same rate • Theory of Evolution: o 2 Types of Biological Evolution  Microevolution = changes in genetic characteristics over time, changes in gene frequency (how common an allele is in a pop), population over several generations + changes in gene frequency in pop, thought that it leads to macroevolution, eg. genealogy  Macroevolution = descent of diff species from a common ancestor, much larger scale, more generation, derivation of new species  biodiversity, eg. phylogeny  *if characteristic is not genetic, then it isn’t evolution (many traits environmentally and genetically determined) o Biodiversity = the richness of living systems as reflected in genetic variability within and among species, the number of species living on earth, and the variety of communities and ecosystems  Biosphere = all regions of earth’s crust, waters and atm that sustain life  Ecosystem = group of communities interacting w/ their shared physical environment (biotic and abiotic)  Community = pop of all species that occupy the same area  Population = group of individuals of the same kind/species that occupy the same area  Multicellular organism = individual consisting of independent cells  Cell = smallest unit of life o Unity/Diversity of Life: don’t know how many species on earth  little, hard to observe/live in harsh environments that we cannot reach  Opportunities for Diversification  movement into new environments, eg. extinction of dinosaurs allowed for diversification (more mammals), Galapagos finches (moved into vacated island to avoid predators/more food) 3 • *Intracompetition (within a species) intercompetition (between species) • 1. Large changes in environment or evolution of key adaptation • 2. Release from competition or vacated niches eg. Cambrian explosion/radiation (soft bodied to hard bodied)  1st representatives of current phylum • 3. Specialization  different species descended from same species take advantage of environmental changes eg. cichlids have diff. feeding patterns which lead to different anatomical structures • Ecological Opportunity = key adaptations that can be exploited • Evolution of photosynthesis  production of O2  aerobic respiration  development of ozone layer  organisms could live closer to water surface  movement from water to land?  Water-Land • Originally partly aquatic/terrestrial  preexisting traits beneficial for life on land (developed in organisms in water) • To avoid predation? • Approx. 370 mill years ago • Challenges/adaptations  no support (buoyancy in water) to gravity, conservation of water (skin maintains water), protection against UV, waste excretion, reproduction (external fertilization in water  eggs developed a membrane/shell to keep from drying out), food (plants on earth), respiratory surfaces (gills to lungs  internal to keep from drying out, fluid to allow diffusion of gas) • Intermediary/transition fossil of fishapod to tetrapod (Tiktaalik) changes in structure allowed life on land (more robust joints/digits), exaggeration of already present features, flat skull like crocodile • Selection pressures  those better at dealing w/pressures passed on traits o Modes of Nutrition:  Chemoautotroph  oxidize CO2, some bacteria/archaeans, no eukaryotes 4  Chemoheterotroph  oxidize organic molecule, some bacteria/archaeans, proteins, fungi, animals, plants  Photoautotroph  light and CO2, some photosynthetic bacteria, proteins and plants  Photoheterotroph  lights and organic mlcs, some photosynthetic bacteria o Populations = same species, individuals, reproduction o Characteristics of Model Organisms: easy to culture/grow, small, reproduce quickly, short lifespan, mature quickly, many offspring, kept in small space, invertebrates (ethical approval) • Phylogenetics (represent hypotheses of relationships): informative/practical, oomycetes, identify source pops of invasive organisms, infections (trace the source) o Systematics = branch of biology that studies the diversity of life + its evolutionary relationships o Phylogeny = classification organisms based on differences and similarities (morphology, habitat, mode of nutrition, locomotion, DNA/protein sequence, reproduction) *not to scale so can’t tell how closely related/time o Taxonomy = classification of organisms into an ordered system that indicates natural relationships o Classification = an arrangement of organisms into hierarchical groups that reflect their relatedness o Taxonomic Hierarchy: kingdom, phylum, class, order,
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