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Final

bio1001 exam


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide
Final

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1. Biology 1010 Tamara Kelly
Spring 2013 compiled two tests
2. Final Exam – KEY
3. Which of the following would be an example of secondary succession?
a. recovery of a grassland from a prairie fire
b. conversion of forest to a pond due to beaver activity
c. decimation of a population of oak trees due to disease
d. answers A and B
4. Assume that you have been studying a population of cattails at the edge of a pond. After 10 years
of observations, you notice that the population has remained steady. What is the most likely
explanation?
a. The birth rate and death rate are both increasing at the same rate.
b. The pond is drying up.
c. The carrying capacity of the pond has been reached.
d. Nutrient levels in the pond are fluctuating.
5. Assume that each individual of a particular species produces 10,000 seeds over its lifetime. If the
population size is stable (not increasing or decreasing), approximately how many of those seeds
will (on average) survive to reproduce?
a. 1
b. 10
c. 1000
d. There is no way to know.
6. Ecologists generally separate organisms in an ecosystem into three categories (producer,
consumer, decomposer) based on
a. how they obtain their energy.
b. how rapid their metabolism is.
c. the rate of succession in the ecosystem.
d. the size and complexity of the ecosystem.
7. 5. A farmer uses triazine herbicide to control pigweed in his field. For the first few years,
the triazine works well and almost all the pigweed dies; but after several years, the farmer sees
more and more pigweed. Which of these explanations best describes this observation?
A. The herbicide company lost its triazine formula and started selling poor-quality
triazine.
B. The herbicide caused the pigweed to mutate, creating a new triazine-resistant
species.
C. Triazine-resistant pigweed has less efficient photosynthesis metabolism.
D. Only triazine-resistant weeds survived and reproduced, so each year more
pigweed was triazine-resistant.
8. 6. A farmer uses triazine herbicide to control pigweed in his field. For the first few years,
the triazine works well and almost all the pigweed dies; but after several years, the farmer sees
more and more pigweed, no matter how often he applies triazine. Which of these actions is most
likely to solve the farmer’s problem?
A. buying triazine from a different company
B. trying a different herbicide
C. increasing the amount of triazine he puts on his fields
D. adding triazine more often to his fields
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9. 7. Parasitic species tend to have simple morphologies. Which of the following statements
best explains this observation?
A. Parasites are lower organisms, and this is why they have simple morphologies.
B. Parasites do not live long enough to inherit acquired characteristics.
C. Simple morphologies have been naturally selected for in most parasites.
D. Parasites have not yet had time to progress, because they are young
evolutionarily.
10. 8. Why are some traits considered vestigial?
A. They improve the fitness of an individual who bears them, compared with the
fitness of individuals without those traits.
B. They change in response to environmental influences.
C. They existed a long time in the past.
D. They are reduced in size, complexity, and function compared with traits in
related species.
11. 9. An example of a vestigial trait in humans is:
A. kidneys
B. cataracts
C. goose bumps
D. There are no vestigial traits in humans.
12. 10. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in homozygous recessives that causes death during
the teenage years. If 4 in 10,000 newborn babies have the disease, what are the expected
frequencies of the dominant (A1) and recessive (A2) alleles according to the Hardy-Weinberg
model?
A. f(A1) = 0.9996, f(A2) =
0.0004
B. f(A1) = 0.9984, f(A2) =
0.0016
C. f(A1) = 0.9800, f(A2)
= 0.0200
D. f(A1) = 0.9604, f(A2) =
0.0392
E. f(A1) = 0.9200, f(A2) =
0.0800
13. aa = A2A2= 4/10,000 = 0.0004
14. A2 = 0.02
15. 11. For biologists studying a large flatworm population in the lab, which Hardy-Weinberg
condition is most difficult to meet?
A. no selection
B. no genetic drift
C. no gene flow
D. no mutation
E. random mating
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16. 12. What does it mean when an allele reaches “fixation”?
A. It is eliminated from the population.
B. It has a frequency of 1.0.
C. It is dominant to all other alleles.
D. It is adaptively advantageous.
17. 13. Male turkeys have a snood, which is a flap of skin that hangs across their beak. Snood
length is negatively correlated with parasite load (e.g., males with longer snoods have fewer
parasites), and females prefer to mate with long-snooded males. This is an example of:
A. the fundamental asymmetry of sex
B. sexual selection via female choice
C. sexual selection via male-male competition
D. a genetic marker
18. 14. Researchers studying a small milkweed population note that some plants produce a toxin and
other plants do not. They identify the gene responsible for toxin production. The dominant allele
(T) codes for an enzyme that makes the toxin, and the recessive allele (t) codes for a
nonfunctional enzyme that cannot produce the toxin. Heterozygotes produce an intermediate
amount of toxin. The genotypes of all individuals in the population are determined (see chart) and
used to determine the allele frequencies in the population.
19. Genotype Frequencies 20. Allele Frequencies
21. TT 22. Tt 23. tt 24. T 25. t
26. 560 27. 280 28. 160 29. 0.7 30. 0.3
31. Is this population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? SHOW ALL YOUR MATH!
32. F(T) = [(560x2) + 280]/2000 = 0.7 f(t) = 0.3
33. Exp. #: TT = 490 Tt = 420 tt = 90
34. X2 = 111; this population is NOT in HW
A. yes
B. No; there are more heterozygotes than expected.
C. No; there are more homozygotes than expected.
D. More information is needed in order to answer this question.
35. 15. The researchers had already noted that negligible mutation and migration existed in this
milkweed population, and the butterflies that pollinate these plants are not affected by the toxin.
Which of the following would be a logical conclusion about this milkweed population based on
your answer to question 14 above?
A. Genetic drift and selection are negligible.
B. There is either a heterozygote advantage or inbreeding depression.
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