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BIOL 1001 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Background Extinction Rate, Continental Drift, Radiometric Dating

Course Code
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide

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Words to Define (Glossary Objective)
Be sure that you can define (and perhaps differentiate between different terms) and
USE the following
biological terms within each section of the course. Many of these terms will be used
in several different units
within the course.
Nature of Science
is a claim, belief or practice presented as scientific, but which does not adhere to the
scientific method.
,anecdotal evidence
evidence from anecdotes. Where only one or a few anecdotes are presented
irreducible complexity
is a pseudoscientific argument that certain biological systems cannot evolve by
successive small modifications to pre-existing functional systems through natural
Intelligent Design
the pseudoscientific view that "certain features of the universe and of living things are
best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural
Theistic Evolution
not a scientific theory, but a range of views about how the science of general
evolution relates to religious beliefs in contrast to special creation views.
Theory of
evolution by Natural Selection[
Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. More individuals are produced
each generation that can survive. Phenotypic variation exists among individuals and
the variation is heritable. Those individuals with heritable traits better suited to the
environment will survive
Cell Theory
refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing.
Development of this theory during the mid 17th century was made possible by
advances in microscopy. This theory is one of the foundations of biology.
Define and differentiate between the following pairs of terms: theory & hypothesis;
evidence & proof; believe&
accept; function & purpose
Intro to Evolution, History of Evolutionary Thought
theory of evolution
Darwinian theory, it originally included the broad concepts of transmutation of
species or of evolution which gained general scientific acceptance after Darwin
published On the Origin of Species in 1859, including concepts which predated
Darwin's theories, but subsequently referred to specific concepts

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is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population. This
change is due to four different processes: mutation, selection (natural and artificial),
gene flow, and genetic drift.
is evolution on a scale of separated gene pools. Macroevolutionary studies focus on
change that occurs at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution,
which refers to smaller evolutionary changes (typically described as changes in
allele frequencies) within a species or population.
summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a
particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in
an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
phylogenetic tree,
common ancestor, node, speciation event,
Common ancestor: ancestral organism shared by two or more descent organisms
§ Phylogenetic tree: branch diagram showing evolutional relationships of groups of
organisms (show divergence and splitting of species) and explains similarities and
diversities of life
• H ow to read phylogenetic tree:
-Root = ancestral lineage
-Branch tips = descendants -
Speciation event = branching event/node -No absolute age present unless scale
)history of evolutionary thought(
the branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution of plants and
comparative morphology
s analysis of the patterns of the locus of structures within the body plan of an
organism, and forms the basis of taxonomical categorization. Functional
Morphology is the study of the relationship between the structure and function of
morphological features.
is the theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived,
violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This was in contrast to uniformitarianism
(sometimes described as gradualism), in which slow incremental changes, such as
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