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Quiz

BIOL 1001 Quiz: Bio Reading Notes


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Roberto Quinlan
Study Guide
Quiz

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Bio$Textbook$Reading$Notes!
Scientific(Method:(1.2,(1.5(
" 1.2:!The!Cell!Theory!
o Theory!is!an!explanation!for!a!very!general!class!of!phenomena!or!observation;!has!to!be!tested!
vigorously!and!supported!through!evidence!!
! Both!CT!and!TofE!address!the!questions!where!organisms!come!from!and!what!are!they!
made!of!!
! Robert!Hook!studied!a!tree!and!found!the!cell!because!it!was!the!smallest!thing!that!the!
human!naked!eye!was!able!to!see!!
! That!came!to!show!that!all!large!organisms!are!made!up!of!many!many!smaller!ones!!
o Cell:!highly!organized!compartment!that!is!bounded!a!thin,!flexible!structure!called!a!plasma!
membrane!that!contains!concentrated!chemicals!in!an!aqueous!solution!!
o Cell!theory!was!complete:!all!organisms!contain!cells!and!all!cells!come!from!pre"existing!cells!!
o Hypotheses:!a!proposed!explanation!!
o Prediction!is!something!that!can!be!tested!and!must!be!correct!if!hypothesis!is!valid!!
o Experiment:!to!prove!that!all!cells!come!from!pre"existing!cells!because!all!cells!were!killed!by!
boiling!but!new!cells!still!came!in!from!the!old!ones!!
o This!eventually!proved!that!if!all!cells!come!from!pre"existing!cells,!than!individual!organisms!also!
come!from!a!common!line!of!ancestry!(Darwin!and!Wallace!as!well)!
" 1.5:!Doing!Biology!!
o Giraffes!and!their!long!necks!!
! Long!necks!are!for!fighting!and!reaching!for!food!up!high!!
o Food!competition!hypothesis!
! Believe!that!this!is!an!adaptation!due!to!natural!selection!!
! They!made!their!new!hypothesis!based!on!mating!patterns!because!using!food!competition!
did!not!fully!explain!long!necks!!
o Predictions!and!tests!for!sexual!competition!!
! This!proposed!new!hypothesis!that!they!have!longer!necks!to!deliver!harder!blows!when!
fighting!for!females;!this!gets!passed!onto!the!offspring!as!it!is!a!favourable!trait!!
o Pedometer!Hypothesis!
! Ants!know!how!far!they!are!based!on!the!number!of!steps!they!take!and!can!use!that!to!
navigate!(not!landmarks)!
o Testing!the!Hypothesis!
! Stumps,!normal!and!stilts:!if!they!were!cut!short,!they!reached!a!little!bit!shorter,!if!they!
added,!they!walked!further!(because!their!strides!changed)!!
They!were!used!to!their!normal!pattern!of!life!!
o Interpreting!the!Results!!
! The!pedometer!hypothesis!was!proved!correct!because!ants!do!use!their!steps!and!strides!
to!navigate!!
! Null!hypothesis:!specifies!what!we!should!observe!when!the!hypothesis!being!tested!isn’t!
correct!!
! Control!group:!change/add!nothing;!important!for!comparison!!
! Have!to!repeat!experiment!as!much!as!possible!to!rule!out!chance!events!!
!
!

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Brief(History(of(Life:(1.4,(6.2;4(
" 1.4:!Tree!of!Life!
o Speciation:!when!divergence!from!one!type!of!species!occurs!and!natural!selection!plays!a!role!in!
creating!this!new!species!!
o Tree!of!life:!family!tree!of!organisms!!
o Molecules!to!understand!the!tree!of!life!
! Phylogeny:!actual!genealogical!relationships!!
! rRNA!is!studied!to!understand!because!it!is!an!essential!part!of!all!machinery!that!all!cells!
use!to!grow!and!reproduce!!
! Made!up!of!smaller!ribonucleotides!(4!of!them),!connected!like!a!freight!train!(AUGC)!
! rRNA!is!a!trait!that!can!change!during!evolution!because!the!function!is!the!same!but!the!
sequence!varies!in!organisms!!
! Diagram!that!depicts!evolutionary!history!through!the!phylogeny!of!organisms!is!called!a!
phylogenetic!tree!!
Share!branches!=!common!ancestors!!
! Three!functional!lineages:!archaea,!bacteria!(prokaryotes!because!most!lack!nucleus!and!
unicellular)!and!eukarya!(eukaryotes!have!nucleus!and!multicellular)!!
o Naming:!taxonomy!!
! Any!named!group!is!a!taxon!!
! Domains:!archaea,!bac,!eukarya!!
! Phylum:!more!lineages!within!each!domain!!
o Scientific!Naming:!Carolus!Linnaeus!–!named!through!Latin!origin!!
! First!part!is!genus!and!second!part!is!species!(Homo!sapiens)!!
" 6.2:!Tools!for!Studying!History!
o Fossil:!piece!of!physical!evidence!from!an!organism!that!lived!in!the!past!(makes!up!a!fossil!record)!
o How!do!they!form:!when!an!organism!is!buried!in!ash,!sand!or!mud!or!some!other!type!of!
sediment!!
o Preservation!after!burial:!if!it!does!not!decompose,!then!the!fossil!can!be!created!intact!!
! Sediments!accumulate!on!top!of!the!material!and!become!cemented!into!rocks!and!the!
sediments!weight!can!compress!the!organic!material!into!a!thin!carbonaceous!film!!
! If!the!material!decomposes!after!burial:!a!cast!can!be!created!through!the!hole!because!
dissolved!minerals!will!fill!that!hole!!
! If!it!rots!slowly,!the!minerals!will!infiltrate!and!harden!into!stone,!creating!a!premineralized!
fossil!!
! Rare!event:!because!most!of!the!time,!decomposition!is!fast!and!burial!is!slow,!so!most!
species!go!extinct!and!decompose!and!there!might!even!be!no!record!of!them!!
o Limitations!of!Fossil!Records!
! Habitat!Bias:!certain!habitats!are!more!prone!to!fossilization!occurring!because!of!
sediments!being!dropped!off!!
! Taxonomic!and!Tissue!Bias:!slow!decay!is!important!so!animals!with!big!bones!or!shells!are!
more!likely!to!turn!into!fossils!!
! Temporal!Bias:!recent!fossils!are!more!common!than!ancient!fossils!!
Based!on!tectonic!plates!and!where!they!are!placed,!certain!fossils!get!destroyed!
and!are!obliterated!from!record!!
! Abundance!Bias:!species!that!are!spread!more!widely!around!the!world!are!more!likely!to!
be!found!rather!than!more!localized!species!!
o Timeline!!
! Before!they!used!rock!formations!or!fossilized!formations!to!identify!the!boundaries!
between!named!intervals!!
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Use!radiometric!dating!for!absolute!dates!!
! Precambrian:!from!4.6!billion!years!ago!to!542!million!years!ago!!
Divided!into!Hadean,!Archean,!Proterozoic!eons!!
Life!was!exclusively!unicellular!for!most!of!Earth’s!history!
Oxygen!was!virtually!absent!from!the!oceans!and!atmosphere!for!almost!2!billion!
years!after!the!origin!of!life!!
! Phanerozoic!Eon:!between!542!mya!and!the!present!!
Further!divided!into!intervals!called!periods!!
Palaeozoic!(ancient!life):!saw!the!origin!and!initial!diversification!of!the!animals,!
land!plants,!and!fungi!as!well!as!the!appearance!of!land!animals!!
Mesozoic!(middle!life):!in!terrestrial!environments!of!the!Mesozoic,!gymnosperms!
were!the!most!important!plants!and!dinosaurs!were!the!most!important!
vertebrates!!
Cenozoic!(recent!life):!on!land,!angiosperms!were!the!most!important!pants!and!
mammals!were!the!most!vertebrates!!
! Changes!in!the!Oceans!and!Continents!
There!are!constant!changes!in!the!tectonic!plates,!temperature!landforms!!
Pangea!–!warm!climate;!breaks!apart!–!mild!climate;!mostly!separated!continents!–!
glaciation!!
" 6.3:!Adaptive!Radiation!!
o Adaptive!Radiation:!when!a!single!lineage!produces!many!descendant!species!that!live!in!a!wide!
diversity!of!habitats!and!use!a!wide!array!of!resources!!
! Hawaiian!silverswords!display!three!hallmarks:!
Monophyletic!group!
Speciated!rapidly!!
They!diversified!ecologically!–!meaning!in!terms!of!resources!and!they!use!and!the!
habitats!they!occupy!!
Niche:!range!of!resources!that!a!species!can!use!and!the!range!of!conditions!that!it!
can!tolerate!
o Why!do!Adaptive!Radiations!Occur!!
! New!resources!and!new!ways!to!exploit!resources!!
! Ecological!Opportunity:!availability!or!novel!types!of!resources!!
Species!have!different!traits!based!on!the!different!habitats!and!the!uses!they!!
! Morphological!Innovation:!the!evolution!of!a!key!morphological!trait!–!one!that!allowed!
descendants!to!live!in!new!areas!exploit!new!sources!of!good!or!move!in!new!ways!–!
triggered!many!of!the!important!diversification!events!in!the!history!of!life!!
o Cambrian!Explosion!
! First!all!life!forms!were!unicellular!and!about!565!million!years!ago,!the!first!animals!–!
sponges,!jellyfish,!and!perhaps!single!worms!!
50!million!years!ago!almost!all!types!of!animals!groups!had!appeared!!
! Doushantuo,!Ediacaran,!and!Cambrian!Fossils!
Three!major!fossils!assemblages!that!record!the!state!of!animal!life!at!different!
years!in!the!500!000mya!!
! What!triggered!the!explosion?!
Higher!oxygen!levels:!this!makes!aerobic!respiration!more!efficient!!
Evolution!of!predation:!found!shells!with!holes!indicating!that!the!animal!inside!was!
eaten;!this!shows!selection!for!tougher!shells!and!it!would!cause!morphological!
divergence!!
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