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BIOL 1500
Tanya Da Sylva

BIOL MIDTERM 120Biology ThemesCell TheoryRobert Hookediscovered cellsSchleidenSchwannconcluded that all organisms have cellsall cells form from other cellsfoundation for understanding growthreproduction of all organismsMolecular basis of inheritance nucleotidesDNA building blocks 4 total types 2 strands in each DNA moleculeA can only pair w T C can only pair with G knowing 1 strand guarantees that you know the other strand in DNAgenespecific sequences of thousands of nucleotides could code a protein or RNAproteinsRNA determine what the cell is likegenomeentire set of DNA instructionsEvolutionary changediversity 3 main groups Bacteria Archaea EukaryaArchaea group is prokaryote like Bacteria but more closely related to EukaryaKingdom Protistacontains all unicellular eukaryotes except yeast multicellular algaeKingdom Plantaeorganisms w cellulose cell walls and perform photosynthesisKingdom Fungiorganisms w chitin cell walls and perform absorbtionKingdom Animaliaorganisms that ingest other organisms lack cell wallsprokaryoteslack nucleus found in eukaryotes very simple organic body planearliest records go back 25 billion years1st eukaryotes appeared 15 billion years agoeukaryotes1st microfossils different from prokaryotesall organisms other than prokarotesmay go back 27 billions years but fossil evidence only goes back 15 billion yearshave internal membranes and thicker cell wallsearly forms were as large as 60 micrometers in diameterpossess internal structure called the nucleus possibly evolved from the endoplasmic reticulum that isolated the nucleusarchaebacteriaancient ones live in environments similar to that of early earthsimplest organismsEvolutionary conservationsimilarity belief that all organisms descended from a single onecharacteristics of that single organism still exist in cells todayall eukaryotes have nucleus w chromosomesflagellae in animal kingdom all have 92 arrangement of microtubuleshomeodomain proteinfound in animal fungi plant kingdoms developed early on and hasnt been replaced by better versionsTheory of EvolutionCharles Darwinwrote On the Origin of Speciescontemporaries believed that species were unchangeable structures made due to will of the Divine Creatorproposed that natural laws produced changeevolution over timenever challenged the existence of a Divine Creatorbased his ideas on studies in S America and Galpagos Islandsdidnt publish his results for 16 years until Alfred Russel Wallace submitted similar theory independentlyThe Descent of Man argues that humans and apes have similar ancestorsDarwins evidence from expeditions to the Americasfossils of extinct armadillos found in the same area where similar armadillos lived14 species of finches on the Galpagos Islands all had different beaks from eating different food but otherwise very similarresemblances in plants in close areas not similar climates
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