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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2020
Professor
K Wheaton
Semester
Fall

Description
Signal transduction pathway and what Signal receptionamptransduction regulates it response, by feedback pathways Cellular regulation thru signal transduction Messageencodingsignal- and can be generalized to? decodingmeaning......proteins Describe contact dependent, paracrine, Immune system  receptor and protein, synaptic, endocrine localized signals thru tissues and short lived, neurons signals over greater distance, sobule small molecules thru the blood for hormones....last 3 have signal molecules first one doesn’t Cell signalling pathway Outside cell receptors bind to ligand receptor on intracellular (enzymatic activity)intracellular mediatorseffector enzymes (can turn genes on)target proteins (second messengers) ...real pathways can bypass or add more steps Ion channel linked receptors, g-protein linked Mediated by neurotransmitters and ion receptors , enzyme linked receptions channel (changes permeability of plasma membrane), indirectly regulates activity of separate membrane bound protein (activates enzyme) , functions as enzymes (protein kinases) (form dimers) 50% of drugs alter what class? And describe 7 transmembrane receptors, 7 helices that that class ...3 e.g. which terminus is intra vs span the membrane bilayer, and e.g. is smell, extracellular taste, vision .....C-terminuTM N-terminus Epinephrine binds to? E.g of? Binding of ligand Beta adrenergic receptor , 7 receptor , causes? conformational change inside cell e.g. of dimer Growth hormone Key step in termination of signal? Receptor ligand is reversible (dissociate) Describe trimetric G-proteins, what binds GDP Heterotrimer (alpha, beta, and gamma , other 2 bound to? subunits) subunit alpha binds GDP , other 2 bound to lipid anchors G-proteins acts as a ____ for effector proteins Organizer Describe G-protein cycle Absence of hormone G protiein binds GDP and AC is inactivehormone receptor omcples makes G-protein exchange GDP for GTP GTP complex activates AC and produces cAMPhydrolysis of GTP to GDP causes G- protein to dissociate and deactivate AC Galpha has intrinsic what? And how fast , after GTPase (GTPGDP and Pi) , it is slow , hydrolysis it forms? heterotrimetric protein Important second messengers are: , how are cAMP, cGMP, Ca, IP3 and DAG ....can difuse to they used? other compartments, influence
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