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York University
BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

Carbohydrates are composed of? -OH, ketone/aldehyde with multiple monosaccharides are? hydroxide groups Formation of pyranose ring? Aldehyde+alcoholhemiacetal Glucose molecule can provide? Aldehyde (c5) and alcohol (c1) forms Furanose production Ketone+ alcoholhemiketal Ketohexose? C2 keto reacts with c5 hydroxyl (5 ring) Test for sugars? Use copper AGE? Amino group and aldehyde of carbo (reaction) causes aging, arteriosclerosis and diabetes AGE prevalent in? Affects? And has? Diabetes, high glucose in blood, affects intra/extra cellular structures and cross- links O-glycosidic bond C(glucose) and O(alcohol) bonding , long polymers N-glycosidic bonds and ester linkage To nitrogen, to phosphate Oligosaccharides formed by? Maltose? O-glycosidic, 1-4 glycosidic bond Sucrose, galactose, maltose made of? G-F, Gal-G, G-G Where is lactose found? Microvilli of intestine cells Undigested lactose? Percent? Osmotic agent pulling water into intestines, diarrhea, 2/3 of people Glycogen? Homopolymer Amylopectin linkage 1-6 glycosidic linkage Cellulose, branched? Chains? No, parallel Proteoglycans Attach to glycosaminoglycans (95% by weight), lubricants, structural components in connective tissue, cell proliferation, Mucopolysaccharidoses Hurler disease, degrade glycosaminoglycans Glycoprotein glycosination Sugar attached thru Nlinkage or O linkage ABO ABO antigens, glycosyltransferases A-N acetylgalactosamine B-galactose O-inactive glycosyltransferase Protein digestion Activity of enzymes from pancreas, peptidase(intestine) digest more, absorbed by specific transporters in intestine, free amino acids released Alpha-amylase does?
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