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study notes on lecture 10.docx

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BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

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Glucose enters cells by? Changed to? By? Transport proteins, glucose-6-phosphate Why? Adding phosphate group does what? by hexokinase because G6P cannot enter cells, and it destabilizes glucose , use ATP Steps from G6P to 3 carbon members Fructose-6-phosphate (isomeration)fructose 1,6-biphosphate (phosphorylation by PFK uses ATP) DHAP and GAP (all turns into G3P in the end by aldose) st G3P to BPG 2 reactions and intermediate 1,3-BPG (creates NADH, 1 oxidation- favorable,2 joins carboxylic acid(phosphorylation) unfavorable) must be coupled to happen, intermediate has thioester 1,3 BPG to? And is? 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP. High in energy and has a great phosphoryl-transfer potential 3-P to pyruvate? Last reaction special? 2-phosphoglycerate (rearrangement) phosphoenolpyruvate (dehydration) pyruvate (and ATP) irreversible Glycolysis overall reaction Glucose+ 2Pi+ 2ADP +2NAD+2 Pyruvate +2ATP+2NADH+2H++2 H2O Regeneration of NAD? Vitamin niacin, fermentation, and lactate creation Describe fermentation Pyruvate (decarboxylation) needs thiamine-releases CO2acetaldehyde- reduction-releases NAD+ethanol net NAD anything, gets created and then used up Describe lactate fermentation Pyruvatelactate releases NAD+ Lactate and ethanol go to? Acetate How do galactose and fructose go into GalactoseG6P glycolysis? FructoseDHAP, GAP (both from liver) and also F6P from adipose Fructose specifics of coming in? Phosphorylated to F1Psplit into glyceraldehydes and dihydroxyacetone phosphate -> glyceraldehydes goes to G2P Specifics of galactose coming in? Goes to galactose 1-phosphate (uses ATP) joins with UDPisomerized to glucose 6-phosphate Describe galactosemia Disruption of galactose metabolism (UDP transferase doesn’t work) infants fail to thrive, vomit when drinking milk, cataracts form, accumulated galactose reduced to galactitol, water diffuse into lens, lots of milk
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