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York University
BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

Function of the citric acid cycle Harvest high energy electrons from C-fuel Cellular respiration made of? Citric acid cycle, ETC, oxidative phosphorylation Steps from oxaloacetatecitrate Oxaloacetate+acetyl CoA +H2Ocitryl CoA (thio bond)  citrate +CoA + H+ Synthase Ccatalyzes synthethic reaction , 2 units joined without direct use of ATP Citrate synthase steps and changes 49 kd, oxaloacetate binds first (conformational change) and then acetyl CoA, closes up active sites, hydrolysis How does citrate synthase prevent side Cannot hydrolyze acetyl CoA but can to reactions, stored accumulation cirate CoA also hydrolysis not in place until citrate CoA formed, stored in vacuoles n fruits (0.3M) accumulation thru mito. Aconitase black Citrateisocitrate Dehydration then hydration steps, isomerism by aconitase Describe fluoroacetate Toxin, activated to fluoroacetyl CoA, reacts with citrate to become suicide inhibitor of aconitase, shuts down citrate acid cycle, therefore pesticide, Isocitratealpha-ketoglutarate Creates NADH and CO2, decarboxylation Alpha-ketoglutarate  succinyl CoA Creates NADH and CO2, decarboxylation Succinyl CoAsuccinate Creates GTP/ATP and CoA, break thio bond Succinatefumaratemalateoxaloacet Oxidation (FADH2), hydration, oxidation ate (NADH) IN and OUT of citric acid cycle Acetyl CoA, 3NAD, FAD, GDP, Pi, 2H2O2CO2, 3NADH, FADH2, GTP, 2 H+, CoA Cycle only with oxygen why NAD and FAD come from reduction of O2 Describe malonate Competitive inhibitor for succinate dehydrogenase, competes with succinate Encephalomyopathy Mito. Succinate dehydrogenase has 4 nuclearly encoded subunits, SDHA mutation causes E, other 3 cause tumor formation, create superoxide radical Allosteric control of citric acid cycle 1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase stimulated by pyruvate and ADP inhibited by ATP, acetyl CoA and NADH 2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase + from ADP, - from NADH and ATP 3. Alpha-K dehydrogenase – from succinyl CoA and NADH and ATP 4. Other enzymes require NAD and
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