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[BIOL 2021] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (93 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2021
Professor
Patricia Lakin- Thomas
Study Guide
Midterm

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York
BIOL 2021
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Cell Bio Lecture 1
Introduction
Biology is a contingent science
Evolution history is important
o Video 16.1: Neutrophil chase
Cell communication
Cytoskeleton- motor proteins
How is phagocytosis initiated by cell when engulfing bacteria
Endocytosis
Vesicles
o Video 15.4: Calcium signalling
Fluorescent dye illuminants calcium ions
Calcium indicator its role in signalling
Ion channels, neurotransmitters
Cell junctions
o Video 20.1 Breast Cancer cells
Normal cells organize into a polarized epithelium
Cancer cells form into disorganized clumps which form tumors in the body
Cell division/ cell cycle
Cancer
Extracellular matrix
LECTURE 1
Review of Cell Structure
Bacteria Fig
1-14b: E. coli electron micrograph Fig. 1-14a: E. coli drawing
b) Cells DNA concentrated in the light stained area, part of our intestinal flora (community of
microorganisms), has flagella
a) simple internal organization, has flagella at one end that propels organism forward, it can
infect the human small intestine and cause chlorea (severe diarrrhea accompanied with disease
can lead to death) , no internal membrane
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Eukaryotes: yeast (fungi)
Fig 1-36: Yeast electron micrographs (scanning and TEM)
a) scan electron micrograph of
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae,
budding yeast- rapidly reproduces
by protruding of cell which
eventually separates from rest of
cell
b) transmission electron
micrograph- cross section
- Single celled organism from kingdom of fungi
- Tough cell wall, relatively immobile, has mitochondria but lacks chloroplasts
- Grows rapidly with sufficient nutrients
- Reproduces: simple cell division or sexually (two haploid cells fusing to form diploid with
meiosis then separating back into haploid)
Eukaryotes: mammalian pancreas
Cell Explorer 13.8: Pancreas electron micrograph Fig 1-25: Mammalian cell drawing
a) major parts of eukaryotic cell- similar to plants
as well as single celled organism such as yeast and
protozoa
b)Pancreas electron micrograph: red= cell outline,
yellow= microvilli, green= secretory vesicles, blue
= nucleus
- Eukaryotic cells have an elaborate cytoskeleton
- Cytoskeleton provides cell with: strength, shape
control and guided movement
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