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BIOL 2021 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cancer Stem Cell, Chek1, Gene

Course Code
BIOL 2021
Study Guide

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Biology is a contingent science
Evolution history is important
o Video 16.1: Neutrophil chase
Cell communication
Cytoskeleton- motor proteins
How is phagocytosis initiated by cell when engulfing bacteria
o Video 15.4: Calcium signalling
Fluorescent dye illuminants calcium ions
Calcium indicator its role in signalling
Ion channels, neurotransmitters
Cell junctions
o Video 20.1 Breast Cancer cells
Normal cells organize into a polarized epithelium
Cancer cells form into disorganized clumps which form tumors in the body
Cell division/ cell cycle
Extracellular matrix
Review of Cell Structure
Bacteria Fig
1-14b: E. coli electron micrograph Fig. 1-14a: E. coli drawing
b) Cells DNA concentrated in the light stained area, part of our intestinal flora (community of
microorganisms), has flagella
a) simple internal organization, has flagella at one end that propels organism forward, it can
infect the human small intestine and cause chlorea (severe diarrrhea accompanied with disease
can lead to death) , no internal membrane
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Eukaryotes: yeast (fungi)
Fig 1-36: Yeast electron micrographs (scanning and TEM)
a) scan electron micrograph of
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae,
budding yeast- rapidly reproduces
by protruding of cell which
eventually separates from rest of
b) transmission electron
micrograph- cross section
- Single celled organism from kingdom of fungi
- Tough cell wall, relatively immobile, has mitochondria but lacks chloroplasts
- Grows rapidly with sufficient nutrients
- Reproduces: simple cell division or sexually (two haploid cells fusing to form diploid with
meiosis then separating back into haploid)
Eukaryotes: mammalian pancreas
Cell Explorer 13.8: Pancreas electron micrograph Fig 1-25: Mammalian cell drawing
a) major parts of eukaryotic cell- similar to plants
as well as single celled organism such as yeast and
b)Pancreas electron micrograph: red= cell outline,
yellow= microvilli, green= secretory vesicles, blue =
- Eukaryotic cells have an elaborate
- Cytoskeleton provides cell with: strength,
shape control and guided movement
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Eukaryotes: Plants
**Fig 14-37b:
light micrograph of plant
cell Fig 14-37ca: Plant
cell TEM micrograph
b) chloroplasts bright
green in mesophyll
c) CS wheat cell- thin
cytoplasm, contents
surround water vacuole
(full of ions, small molecules, little water and high c of proteins
d) thylakoid membrane + grana visible
- chloroplasts very similar to mitochondria
o highly permeable outer membrane and less permeable inner membrane
o transport proteins embedded in membrane
o narrow intermembrane space
o stroma analogous to mitochondrial matrix- contains its own DNA and RNA as well as
o inner membrane not folded in chloroplast like in mitochondria
o energy capturing mechanisms with associated complexes are found in the thylakoid
Chapter 9: Visualizing cells
Light Microscopy
Fig 9-3a: light microscope
- Diagram of light pathway.
- Visible light focused by condenser
and eye objectives + lenses help
image in the eye
Fig 9-10a: Staining of cellular components
a) Urine collecting
ducts in kidney
stained with
Fig 14-37b: light micrograph of plant cell
*in above section*
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